Patient Care Ch 12,15, 16 last test

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Patient Care Ch 12,15, 16 last test
2013-03-27 10:26:46
Patient Care 12 15 16

Patient Care CH 12,15,16 Last Test
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  1. Oral Meds are absorbed through the ____, whereas injected meds are absorbed through the ___,____,_____, or _____
    • Mucosal lining of the GI tract
    • Blood vessels, Muscles, Subcutaneous Tissue, or Dermal Layers
  2. When meds are injected _____, no absorption is needed
    Directly into a vein or artery
  3. Drugs travel through the circulatory system to its receptor site and then connect with the molecular structure for which it was designed for, this is called
  4. Which process depends on adequate circulation?
  5. Drugs act more quickly in organs with an abundant blood supply like,
    liver, heart brain, kidneys
  6. Most metabolism happens in the _____, where enzymatic action transforms a drug into ____ that can excreted via intestines or kidneys
    • Liver
    • metabolites
  7. What are the chief organs of excretion?
  8. If kidney function is impaired or if the patient is dehydrated, drugs can be retained in the body and a ____ effect can occur
  9. Generic names identify the
  10. ___or___ are given by the manufacturer
    Proprietary or trade names
  11. ____ is a substance that alters physiologic function, with the potential to affect health
  12. ____ is a drug administered for its therapeutic effects
  13. Science of drugs, including sources, chemistry, and actions of drugs is
  14. Each drug has 4 separate names
    • chemical
    • generic
    • official
    • brand
  15. Resources for drugs are
    • #1 PDR physician's desk reference
    • USP- United States pharmacopia
    • Specific drug pkg
  16. What is the way in which drugs affect the body
  17. Each drug has a unique ____enabling it to interact with a specific enzyme or a corresponding cell type
    Molecular structure
  18. The drug attaches itself to a target site in the body called a
    receptor site
  19. The combined effect alters the behavior of the targeted cells and causes ____ changes in the patient
  20. What is a way that drugs travel through the body to their appropriate receptor sites
  21. Most of the time, the drugs travel in ____
    the blood stream
  22. Every drug must be ____ in the blood stream to be effective
  23. Dosage and speed of absorption depends on factors such as
    • route of entry
    • ph of recipients enviroment
    • solubility of formula
    • drug's interaction with body's chemicals
  24. Some drugs need to combine with ____ or ____
    Proteins or cross membranes
  25. ____ is the process by which the body alters the chemical composition of a substance
  26. The ___ detoxifies foreign substances entering the body and changes them into a water soluble substance that can excreted by the ____
    • liver
    • kidneys
  27. ____ is when the body excretes drugs and their by-products through the what 7 things
    • Excretion
    • kidneys
    • lungs (gases)
    • sweat glands
    • tear ducts
    • salivary glands
    • intestines
    • mammary glands
    • kids like sugary tea soaked in mustard
  28. Rate of excretion depends on
    • the body's systems
    • the drug's 1/2 life
    • concentration of tissues
  29. Patient related variables for doses are what 5 things
    • age
    • weight
    • physical condition
    • gender
    • person and emotional requirements
  30. Younger children require ____ of a dose and ____ is used for calculation
    • less
    • weight
  31. Older patients require ____ because decrease in efficiency of organs and slowing of circulation. ___ and ____ become imparied
    • more
    • liver and kidneys
  32. Average dose is based on ____ adults
    healthy 150lb
  33. Women have a lower average body weight than men and ____ drugs differently
  34. Women's ___ and the amt and distribution of ___ and the difference in ___ alter the metabolism
    • hormones
    • body fat (since we have more)
    • body fluid
  35. ____ can alter the way a patient reacts to drugs, positive and negatively.
    Patient expectations
  36. Drug related variables (9)
    • Side effects
    • complications
    • allergic reactions
    • tolerance
    • cumulative effect
    • idiosyncratic effects
    • dependence
    • drug interactions
    • iatrogenic disease
    • (Some Complications Are Too Crazy In Drug Dependence Incidences)
  37. ____ are expected reactions to medication
    side effects
  38. ____ are unexpected and can range from mild to severe
  39. In allergic reactions, the drug acts as an ____ and the body develops ____ to that drug
    • antigen
    • antibodies
  40. AN allergic reaction can range from
    light rash to anaphylactic shock
  41. ____ is when a body adapts to a drug and requires greater doses to achieve the desired effect
  42. ____ develops if the body is unable to detoxify and unable to excrete a drug quickly enough or if too large a dose is taken. the drugs then accumulate in the ____ and become ____
    • Cumulative effect
    • tissue
    • toxic
  43. ____ is inexplicable and unpredicted symptoms caused by a genetic defect in the patient
    idiosyncratic effect
  44. ____ is when you have had extensive exposure to the drug
  45. _____ occurs when 2 or more drugs or a combo of food and drugs can create + and  - effects
    drug interactions
  46. ___ results from long term use of a drug that damages organs or causes other disorders over time
    Iatrogenic disease
  47. ____ are the 6 rights of administering medications
    • Identify right patient
    • Select the right medication
    • Give the right dose
    • Give the right med at the right time
    • Give the med via right route
    • Ensure right documentation
  48. Therapists should know ___ of emergency supplies and the way to administer ____ and ____
    • location
    • O2
    • CPR
  49. Examples of emergency situations are
    • Asthma attack
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Anaphylactic shock
    • Cardiac Arrest
  50. In case of emergency what would a therapist do
    1 therapist calls 911 while the other gets the doc
  51. what do Analgesics do
    relieve pain
  52. ____ suppresses sensation of feeling
  53. ____ is a mild tranquilizer that helps calm anxious pts and relieves muscle spasms
    Anti anxiety
  54. ____ suppresses growth of bacteria
  55. ___ prevents blood from clotting
  56. ____ inhibit or control seizures
  57. ____ are mood controllers
  58. ____ control GI distress
  59. ____ prevent nausea and vomiting
  60. ____ treat fungal infections
  61. ____ treats allergies
  62. ____ lower blood pressure
  63. ____ is chemotherapy
  64. ____ enhances internal tissues for diagnostic imaging
    contrast media
  65. Examples of contrast media
    Barium via oral, IV, paste, etc
  66. ____ reduces inflammation
    antiinflammatory and corticosteroids
  67. ___ remove fluid from cells
  68. _____ used to augment (increase) endocrine secretions
  69. _____ relieves pain
  70. ____ is used in nuclear medicine exams
    radioactive isotopes
  71. ____ induce sleep or unconsciousness
  72. what are the 2 categories of contrast media
    • Positive- radiopaque
    • Negative- radiolucent
  73. ____ will appear white on xrays
    • positive radiopaque
    • (absorbs the xray)
  74. What will appear dark on xrays
    • negative- radiolucent
    • (no absorption)
  75. The higher the ____ the more absorption, like bone
    atomic #
  76. ____ is the commonly used contrast agent in the GI tract. ____ is used in the esophagus
    • Barium sulfate (heavy metal salt)
    • paste
  77. Barium can be delivered ___ or ____ and can cause ___ and ____ but cannot be used if
    • orally or rectally
    • cramping and constipation
    • perforation of colon
  78. _____are iodide atoms that attach to water-soluble carrier molecules and dispatch to areas of the body. the atoms displace ___in the cells and ___ xray protons in those regions
    • organic iodides
    • water
    • absorb
  79. _____ -  the atoms splits into a + and - charged particle when it comes in contact with body fluids. With so many particles in the blood stream absorbing water, the ____ is affected
    • Ionic contract
    • body's fluid balance
  80. _____- the atoms do not split therefore not causing as many problems with patients
    nonionic contrast
  81. ____ is used in CT and MRI to inject the patient with contrast
    power injector
  82. The contrast media is quickly absorbed and metabolized by the ____
  83. What are minor reactions to contrast
    • nausea
    • retching
    • mild vomitting
  84. What are moderate reactions to contrast
    • fainting
    • chest and abdominal pain
    • headaches
    • chills
    • severe vomitting
    • edema of the face
  85. What are severe reactions to contrast
    • syncope
    • convulsions
    • pulmonary edema
    • cardiac arrest
  86. ____ taken by mouth and slowly absorbed into blood stream
  87. Taking medicine via ____, are less potent but longer lasting than injected meds
  88. Suppository, inhalation of a medication mist, gargling, or dissolved under the tongue are examples of
    Mucous Membrane drug administration
  89. ____ is when transdermal patches are applied directly to the skin
  90. _____ is drug administration by injection
  91. _____ is an injection between the layers of the skin
    intradermal (like TB)
  92. ____ is a 45-90 degree into the subcutaneous layer just below the skin
  93. _____ is a 90 degree injection into the muscle
  94. ____is an injection directly into the blood stream
  95. _____ is injected directly into the spinal cord
  96. ____ is injected directly into the trachea
  97. ____ is an injection directly into the brain
  98. Needles are measured by gauge, the smaller the gauge, the ____ the diameter of the needle
    • larger
    • (a 24 gauge is smaller than a 12 gauge)
  99. What are the 3 methods of IV delivery
    • Continuous infusion
    • piggy backed
    • bolus or push
  100. IV solution should be 18-20" ___ the level of the vein
  101. a.c.
    before meals
  102. bid
    twice a day
  103. h
  104. h.s.
    at bedtime
  105. IM
  106. IV
  107. mL
  108. p.c.
    after meals
  109. PO
    by mouth
  110. p.r.n.
    as needed
  111. q
  112. q3h
    every 3 hours
  113. qh
  114. qid
    4 times a day
  115. qod
    every other day
  116. stat
    at once
  117. SQ/SC
    subcutaneous (subcue)
  118. tid
    three times a day
  119. ____ is when the vein cannot absorb the fluid quick enough and there is leakage around the injection site
  120. ____ contrast media is injected into the tissue of the vein
  121. ____ can be caused from electrolyte imbalance, edema, speed shock from too fast delivery, drug incompatibility, clotting, and phlebitis
    Air embolism
  122. What should be on an emergency crash cart
    • Stethoscope
    • BP cuff
    • bag valve mask
    • endotracheal tubes
    • suction catheters
    • sterile gloves
    • cardiac monitor
    • needles
    • hemostat
    • adrenalin
    • atropine
    • gulcagon
    • nitro
    • xylocain
  123. Can you remove something from the crash cart for routine use
    NO never
  124. ____ is placement of any tube. It is most commonly placed in ___
    • intubation
    • trachea
  125. ____ is the surgical opening through the anterior of the neck into the trachea
  126. ____ is the mechanical respirator device powered by compressed air that controls the respiratory rate, volume, and o2 contrast
  127. O2 is usually delivered ___ per min
    1-6 liters
  128. ___ occurs when the heart and rep function stop functioning. It ___ reversible
    • Clinical death
    • IS
  129. ___ occurs 2-4 min after clinical death and ___ reversible. major brain and organ damage
    • biological death
    • is NOT
  130. ____ difficulty breathing caused by bronchospasm
  131. Signs of respiratory distress include
    • Complaining of difficulty in breathing
    • tachypnea
    • abnormal breathing sounds
    • cyanosis
  132. ____ is insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle that results from coronary disease
    Myocardial Ischemia
  133. ____ is a heart attack. Cardiac arteries become occluded and a portion of the heart wall becomes ischemic
    Myocardial Infarction
  134. ____ are when coronary arteries are unable to supply the heart muscle with sufficient O2
    Angina pectoris
  135. ____ is a machine that administers electric shock to correct an ineffectual cardiac rhythm
    defibrillator machine
  136. What is an AED
    automatic external defibrillator
  137. ___ is the general term used to describe a failure of ciruculation in which BP is inadequate to support O2 perfusion of vital tissues and is unable to remove them by products of ____
    • shock
    • metabolism
  138. What are the 4 types of shock
    • hypovolemic
    • septic
    • neurogenic failure
    • cardiogenic
  139. ____ is when large amts of blood or plasma are lost (hemorrhage)
  140. ____ is a massive infection that produces toxins that increase capillary permeability and drops BP quickly
  141. ____ is a failure of arterial resistance, causing blood pooling in the peripheral vessels
    neurogenic failure shock
  142. ____ is cardiac failure
    Cardiogenic sock (PE)
  143. ___ is when a pt is exposed to substance to which they are sensitive
    Allergic reaction or anaphylaxis
  144. What are the symptoms of an allergic reaction or anaphylaxis
    • diff breathing
    • swollen/tingling lips
    • vomitting
    • drop in bp
    • metallic taste in mouth
    • itching skin
    • hives
    • dizzy
  145. ____ is a very mild form of shock that occurs with fright, pain or an unpleasant event.
  146. Shock symptoms
    • Restlessness/Apprehension
    • Increased pulse
    • Pallor with weakness or changes in thinking ability
    • Cool clammy skin (except in neurogenic or septic)
    • Fall in bp of 30mm below baseline systolic
    • Decreased urination
    • Increased and shallow respirations
  147. 2 types of diabetes
    • insipidus
    • mellitus
  148. ____ is induced by problems with the kidneys or the pituitary that cause glucose to be excreted in the urine while blood glucose levels remain normal
    Diabetes Insipidus
  149. Symptoms for diabetes insipidus are
    polyuria and thirst
  150. ____ (hyperglycemia) is the inability to metabolize blood glucose
    Diabetes mellitus
  151. Insulin is produced in the ___ in response to food intake
  152. insufficient insulin prevents the use of glucose by the ____. In response, the body wall break down fat or muscle causing ____ to build up in body
    • muscles
    • ketones
  153. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus
    • Fruity breath
    • thirsty
    • frequent urination
  154. ___ occurs when pts take insulin but no food. Blood sugar become low.
  155. Symptoms of hypoglycemia
    • weakness
    • sweating
    • tremors
    • hunger
    • loss of consciousness
  156. If a hypoglycemic pt has an episode and they are conscious, you should ____, but if they are unconscious you can ___
    • give candy or juice
    • give an IV of dextrose solution
  157. ____ is a term for interruption of blood supply to the brain
    • CVA
    • cerebrovascular accident of stroke
  158. What can cause a CVA
    • hemorrhage
    • occluded artery
  159. A CVA can be ___ to ____
    mild (transient ischemic attack) to major
  160. Warning signs for a CVA
    • slurred/difficulty in speech
    • extreme dizziness
    • severe headache
    • muscle weakness
    • vision problems
    • temporary loss of consciousness
  161. If someone is suffering from a CVA, you should
    lay them supine with head elevated and call for emergency help
  162. ___ is local or generalized brain function or disturbance
  163. If a pt is having this type of siezure, do not restrain them, but keep items that can injure them away and if they are on the table, just keep the from falling
    Tonic-clonic seizure (grand mal)
  164. Seizures with brief loss of consciousness
    petite mal
  165. ____ is a nosebleed. when this happens, just hold firmly against the nasal septum for 10 minutes. do NOT have them
    • epistaxis
    • lie down, blow nose or talk