Card Set Information

2013-03-27 09:48:32
HON 122

Show Answers:

  1. Japan
    • 1.      Late 1850s and early 1860s, it looked as if Japan would follow China’s fate and be carved up into spheres of influence by Western powers
    • a.      Rapid transformation produced a very different result
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Before 1868, the shogun, a powerful hereditary military governor assisted by a warrior nobility known as the samurai, exercised real power in Japan
  2. Emperor's Funcitoins
    • 1.      Emperor’s functions had become religious
    • a.      After the shogun’s concessions to the Western nations, anti-foreign sentiment led to a samurai revolt in 1867 and the restoration of the emperor as the rightful head of the government 
  3. New emperor
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The new emperor was the astute, dynamic, young Mutsuhito, who called his reign the Meiji (enlightened Government)
    • 1.      The new leaders who controlled the emperor now inaugurated a remarkable transformation of Japan that has since been known as the Meiji Restoration 
  4. superiority
    • 1.      Recognizing the obvious military and industrial superiority of the West, the new leaders decided to modernize Japan by absorbing and adopting Western educations, especially in social and natural sciences
    • a.      German-style army and Britishstyle navy were established
    • b.      Copied industrial and financial methods of US and developed modern commercial and industrial system
  5. centralized administrative system
    • 1.      Highly centralized administrative system copied from the French replaced the old system
    • a.      Initially, they adopted Fench pricncipels of social and legal equality, but by 1890, they had created a political system that was democratic in form but authoritarian in practice
  6. Imitating hte west
    • 1.      In imitating the West, Japan developed a powerful military state
    • a.      Universal military conscription was introduced in 1872, and a modern peacetime army of 240,000 was eventually established
  7. Japanese
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Japanese avidly pursued the Western imperialistic model
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Defeated China in 1894-1895, annexed some Chinese territory, and established their own spere of influence in China
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      After defeat of Russians in 1905, they made Kiorea a colony under harsh rule 
    • Proved tha tAsians could play "white man's imperialistic game
  8. India
    • 1.      Brit government controlled India
    • a.      Crushed Indian revolt, and ruled directly under Parliament’s supervision; small group of British civil servants directed the affairs of India’s almost 300 million people
  9. Brits brought order
    • 1.      Brits broght order to dsociety divided by civil wars and created honest and efficient government
    • 2.      Brought Western technology and introduced secondary schools and colleges where Indian upper/ middle/ professional classes learned to serve as trained subordinates in overnment and army
  10. Brit legislation
    • 1.      Brit legislation affected Indian women
    • a.      Brits banned the practice of sati (viewed as Brit forcing their cultural superior)
    • b.      Female infanticide discouraged
  11. Indians paid price
    • 1.      Indians paid price for the peace and stability
    • a.      Due to population growth in 19th, extreme poverty was a way of life for most
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Industrialization didn’t help
    • 1.      Manufactured goods destroyed ocal ndustries and Indian wealth paid Brit officials and a large army
  12. System of education
    • a.      System of education only for elite, upper class, and only in English lanuge while 90% remained illiterate
    • b.      Even Indians who benefited saw rule as degrading
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Best jobs and houses for Britons
  13. Indians and equality
    • 1.      Indians never considred equal
    • a.      Racial attitudes made it hard to accept British ruleà Indian nationalist movement
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1883: Indian National Congress formed: moderate, educated Indians were seeking self- government
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      1919: in response to British violence and Brit insensitivity, Indians were demanding complete independence