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  1. International Rivalry and the Coming of War: Before 1914, Euroepans had experienced almost __. There were wars, but none with great powers. A series of crises had occurred that could have led to war, but it was due to __that it didn’t. Until 1890, __exercised restraining influence on the Europeans
    • 50 years of peace
    • Bismarck
    • Germany
  2. I.                   The Bismarckian System
    • a.      Bismarck knew a united Germany upset power made at Vienna in 1815
    •                                                               i.      Afraid of French desire for revence, he allied with conservative powrs of Austria-Hungary and Russia= Three Emperors’ League failed to work because of Russian- Austrian rivalry in the Balkans
  3. The Balkans
    •                                                               i.      Problem was due to fall of Ottomans
    • 1.      As subject peoples in the Balkans clamored for independence, corruption and inefficiency weakened Ottoman gov.
    • a.      Only interfrerence of Euroepan powers, who were scared of each other’s designs on its terroritoeis, kept Ottomans alive
  4. Austrian- Russian rivalry
    •                                                               i.      Austrian-Russian rivalry complicated things
    • 1.      Russia: Balkans gave shortest overland route to COnstantinope and Mediterranean
    • 2.      Austria: Balkans were fertile for their expansion
    • 3.      Germany: Bismarck only cared because he was scared of war between Russia and Austria and restrained both powers 
  5. 1876
    •                                                               i.      1876: Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro declared war on the Ottomans, but were defeated
    • 1.      Russia, with Austrian approva, attacked and defeated the Ottomans= Treaty of San Steano
  6. Bulgarian state
    • a.      A large Bulgarian state, extending from the Danube in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south, was created
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      As Bulgaria was viewed as Russian satellite, this success caused other great powers to call for a congress of Europ powers to discuss revision of the treaty
  7. Congress of Berlin
    • 1.      Dominated by Bismarck
    • 2.      Congress demolished the Treaty of San Stefano and the Bulgarian state was reduced; rest of territory returned to Ottomans
    • a.      Three Balkan states of Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania, were independent
    • b.      Other Balkan territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina were under Austrian protection;
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Austria could occupy, but not annex them 
  8. New ALliances
    • 1.      After the Congress, the European powers sought new alliances to safeguard their security
    • a.      Angered by the Germans’ actions at the congress, the Russians terminated the Three Emperors’ League in 1879
  9. Germany, Austria, Italy
    a.      Triple Alliance of 1882 committed Germany, Austria, and Italy to support the existing political order while providing a defensive alliance against France or other opposing powers 
  10. Bismarck and Russia
    • a.      At the same time, he sought to remain on friendly terms with the Russians and signed the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1887, hoping to prevent a French-Russian alliance that would threaten Germany with the possibility of a two-front war
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Bismarckian system of alliances, geared to preserving peace and the status quo, had worked, but in 1890, Emperor William II dismissed Bismarck and began to chart a new direction for Germany’s foreign policy
Card Set:
2013-03-27 15:11:41
HON 122

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