Genetics Exam 3

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wintera
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209849
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Genetics Exam 3
Updated:
2013-04-04 19:44:51
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genetics DNA plasmids cloning southern blot analysis techniques
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  1. DNA Poly III
    3'-5' exonuclease proofreading activity
  2. dam methylase
    Methylates GATC sequences in bacteria DNA, for a template for mismatch repair.
  3. Mut H, S, and L
    • Mut S recognizes mismatch sequence
    • H and L excise error
  4. Post replication repair/homologous recombination repair (T-dimers)
    • RecA directs repair off template strand
    • DNA poly and ligase fill gap
  5. SOS repair
    Mutagenic DNA replication in response to damage to other repair mechanisms. A last ditch effort.
  6. Photoreactivation repair
    • UV light activates protein the cleaves TT dimers,
    • prokaryotes only, photolyase
  7. Base Excision Repair
    • DNA Glycosylases recognize chemically altered bases and cut them out creating AP sites
    • AP endonuclease creates a kink from the AP site which is then corrected
  8. Nucleotide excision repaeir
    • Uvr (UvrA UvrB UvrC)
    • clip out a total of 13 nucleotides to repair lesion.
  9. Xeroderma pigmentosum
    in humans disruption of Uvr genes, causes excessive freckling and ulcers when exposed to UV light.
  10. Double strand break repair
    • Homologous recombination repair: RAD52 in G2 phase of cells
    • Non-Homologous recombination repair: Error prone in G1 phase
  11. PCR ingredients
    • Template
    • Primers, (1 for each end)
    • DntP's
    • DNA polymerase (heat resistant)
  12. PCR steps
    • Denaturation
    • primer annealing
    • extension
  13. miRNAs
    gene silencing in plants
  14. Methylation
    decrease in gene expression in eukaryotes
  15. Deamination
    causes an increase of AT base pair repeats overtime
  16. Deamination repair
    base excision repair
  17. Dideoxy chain termination
    no hydroxyl group at 3' position causes polymerase termination.
  18. DNA proofreading
    3'-5' by several polmerases
  19. Mitochondial diseases
    In humans the male donates no mitochondria
  20. Different Mitochondria
    Heteroplasmy
  21. 1:1 phonotype petite ratio of yeast
    segregational petite
  22. Segregational mitochondrial diseases
    a deletion of a nuclear gene for mitochondrial function
  23. Suppressive mitochondrial disease
    causes wildtype to become mutant,small deletion which enhances proliferation but disable function
  24. Neutral Mitochondrial Disease
    Large deletion, f2 gametes WT and mutant
  25. Prions
    • cause, bovine spongiform encephalitis
    • can induce non-mutant proteins to become mutant
    • will not affect a host without a gene for the target protein
  26. Poly-dT oligos
    separate rRNA and tRNA from mRNA
  27. Mouse Homologous recombination
    ES cells that contain Neo but not thymadine kinase
  28. PCR primers
    remember, DNA poly transcribes 5'-3' copy off primers(reads 3'-5')
  29. contig
    contiguous sequence: i.e chromosome
  30. cDNA library
    smaller, no introns, made form mRNA
  31. Microarray expiriment
    compares mRNA copy number between two different cells
  32. Ced
    • C. elegans
    • Ced3 promotes cell death
    • Ced3(-) = no cell death
    • Ced9 inhibits cell death
    • Ced9(-) = lots of cell death
    • Ced9-->Ced3-->cell controlled death
  33. Laser ddNTPs
    5'big sqiggle--->3'little squiggle

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