Fundamental Hematology Principles
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Name the components of whole blood
What makes up the buffy coat?
What is plasma composed of?
- 90% water
What is the body's tendency to move toward physiological stabiliy?
What is the body/cellular water concentration, and is composed of 0.85% sodium chloride?
What is the pH reference ranges, for both venous and arterial?
- Venous: 7.36-7.41
- Arterial: 7.38-7.44
What is normal body temperature?
37 degrees Celcius
What is the MCV range?
What does the MCV indicate?
- The average/mean volume of RBC's
What is the calculation for MCV?
What clinical conditions are associated with an increased MCV?
- Megaloblastic anemia
- Hemolytic anemia with retics
- Liver disease
- Normal in newborns
What clinical conditions are associated with a decreased MCV?
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Sideroblastic anemia
- Lead poisoning
What is the reference range of MCH?
What is MCH an indicator of?
Average weight of hemoglobin in individual RBCs
What is the calculation of MCH?
What clinical condition is associated with an increased MCH?
What clinical conditions are associated with a decreased MCH?
- Microcytic anemia
- Hypochromic anemia
What is the reference range of MCHC?
What is MCHC an indicator of?
Average concentration of hemoglobin in grams per deciliter
What is the calculation of MCHC?
What does a value in between 32-37 g/dL MCHC indicate?
What does a value <32 g/dL MCHC indicate?
- Hypochromic RBCs
- Iron deficiency
What does a value >37 g/dL MCHC indicate?
- Possible error in RBC or Hgb measurement
- Presence of spherocytes
What is the reference range for RDW?
What is associated with increased RDW?
- Anisocytosis (variation in size)
- Post-treatment (Iron, B12, Folic acid treatment)
- Idiopathic siderblastic anemia
What is the reference range for HCT?
- Males: 41-53%
- Females: 36-46%
What is the calculation for HCT?
What is the reference range of Hgb?
- Males: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
- Females: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
What is the reference range of platelets?
150-450 x 109/L
What is the reference range of MPV?
What is the term for the amount of a cell type in realtion to other blood components?
What is an increase in the percentage of lymphs and frequently associated with neutropenia?
Describe relative polycythemia?
RBCs appear increased due to decreased plasma volume
What is the actual number of each cell type without respect to other blood components?
What is the most commonly used stain for peripheral blood smear?
What stains are included in Wright's stain?
- Methylene blue
- Methanol fixative
Name some polychrome stains
What is the term for a type of stain used for nonvital (dead) cells?
- Polychrome stain
Name a nonvital monchrome stain
What is a stain that stains a specific cellular component?
Nonvital monochrome stain
What stain is used to stain iron granules in RBCs, histiocytes, and urine epithelial cells?
What is the stain Prussian blue used for?
To stain iron granules
What type of stain is used on living cells for a specific cellular component?
Supravital monochrome stain
Name some supravital monochrome stains
- New methylene blue
- Neutral red with brillian cresyl green
What is New methylene blue used to stain?
- Used to see precipitate RNA in reticulocytes
- Used to measure bone marrow erythropoiesis
What is Neutral red with brillian cresyl green used to stain?
What clinical conditions are associated with Heinze Bodies?
- G6PD deficiency
- Unstable hemoglobin disorders
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