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2013-04-01 14:15:21

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  1. Triggering a skeletal muscle fiber during contraction involves?
    Actin (C)  
  2. Proteins of thin filament binds to calcium and therefore initiates skeletal muscle contraction:
    Troponin responds to calcium (D)  
  3. In order for cross bridge cycling to occur the actin myosin complex must be broken by ___
    The binding of ATP to Myosin (E)
  4. Sequence of events that links the action potential to change in skeletal muscle course development
    Excitation reaction coupling (B)    
  5. The ___ is the voltage sensor that initiates an increase of cytoplasm calcium in response to an action potential that physically opens the sarcoplasmic reticulum that responds to calcium.
    EHP receptor (B)
  6. The binding of calcium that targets the skeletal muscle will directly result in ___ Movement of troponin
    tropomyosin complex (A)
  7. What is the function of the t tubules?
    Conduct action potential to the sarcolemma to the anterior of the muscle extending that action (D).
  8. In order to allow discrete contract elements to occur calcium to rapidly removed in the sarcoplasmic?
    Calcium pumps (Active transport) (B)
  9. What is not a part of the process for skeletal muscles to relax?
    Sarcolemma of calcium channels to open and allows eclipse of calcium. (C)
  10. As the intensity of exercise increases in muscle switching from oxidative phosphorylation:
    Anaerobic ATP production resulting in an increased production of lactic acid (E)
  11. Muscle contractions:
    Do not action potential and sarcolemma stimulate the opening of voltage gated calcium channels in the plasma membrane to start the plasma reticulum.  This is FALSE because it gets calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (A)
  12. Which of the following does not increase the force generated by an individual muscle fiber? 
    Recruitment of an individual muscle fiber to increase the frequency of the stimulation (C)
  13. Normal of skeletal permeability of muscle lining speed of contraction skeletal muscle fiber is dependent on?
    Rate of myosin ATPase (B)
  14. Where are gap junctions commonly found?
    In the cardiac and smooth muscle (B)
  15. In smooth muscle capcin triggers contraction of ions of what protein?
    Calmodulin when bound in smooth muscle activates contraction by activating myosin which makes calcium flow. (Skeletal muscle it is actin and smooth is myosin) (B)
  16. Which of the following is not associated with cardiac muscle? 
    Short refectory period (A)
  17. Natural killer cells can effect abnormal cells by the release of:
    Perforins (C)
  18. Once in ____ can use the tissue to convert it into a macrophage that attacks invaders by phagocytosis
    Monocytes (D)
  19. From a b cell contact with a forging or abnormal antigens it develops into a ___ that releases ___ Plasma
    Plasma cell, antibody (B)
  20. Each antibody can bind?
    2 of the same epitope (D)
  21. Vaccines are composed of ____ that stimulate an active immunity to that pathogen are made of
    Non-pathogen portion of microorganisms (B)
  22. A natural form of passive immunity evolves the transfer of
    Antibodies to an infant through mother’s milk (C)
  23. When blood leaves the heart it first enters the
    Arteries (B)    
  24. Blood supply to the heart
    Coronary artery (B)     
  25. Closure of the AV valve occurs when
    The pressure inside the ventricle is greater than the inside of the atrium (D)
  26. The ___ carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
    Pulmonary artery (A)     
  27. The following is the correct conduction
    SA, AV, bundle of his, perkunje fibers (D)
  28. An ECG tracing shows a series of normal beats followed by a QRS that occurs significantly earlier than normal without a visible P wave
    Premature ventricular depolarization (B)
  29. Which of the following indicates ventricular repolarization
    P-wave (A)      
  30. Which of the following equations is correct?
    Cardiac output = stroke volume * heart rate (B)      
  31. A male patient presents with a BP of 90/60 with 6 beats every 6 seconds?
    Pulse pressure is not 60 it is 30, (C)  
  32. In the circulatory system the largest pressure drop occurs across the
    Arterial (C)  
  33. Drugs that block angiotensin enzyme (ace) would
    Decrease the arterial pressure (C)   
  34. Which of the following would cause dilation of global capillaries resulting in increased level blood flow?
    CO2 also true with decreased pH (B)
  35. Hormone vasopressin or ADH has 2 main roles:
    Vasoconstriction and decrease urine (A)
  36. What can cause edema
    Liver damage (B)
  37. Hematocrit is a measurement of amount of what component of blood?
    Erythrocytes (A)
  38. Most abundant plasma protein is:
    Albumin (A)    
  39. What is not accurate in regards to erythrocytes
    They do not migrate in to infected regions of tissue (D)
  40. What triggers erythropoietin to release?
    Decreased o2 levels. (D)  
  41. What would not increase hemoglobin affinity for oxygen
    Increased pH (C)
  42. In healthy epithelial cells carbonic acid is converted into ____ the formation of blood clots:
    Prostacyclin released from healthy cells and inhibits the formation of blood clots (C)
  43. ___ functions primarily as the region of lungs where the majority of gas exchange occurs in the:
    Eboulius (C)
  44. When pressure inside the lungs exceeds the atmospheric pressure air will move:
    Outside of the lungs (B)
  45. contraction of the diaphragm results in
    Increased in volume of thoracic cavity and decrease in pressure in the lungs (D)
  46. oxygenated blood is found in
    Pulmonary art and the pulmonary vein and right atrium (D)
  47. increase and decreasing magnitude of ingredient and will
    Muscle increased concentration gradient of co2 and facilitate in the movement of (A)
  48. hyperventilation will lead to an increase of ___ and ___ in the blood
    Increased o2 and decrease co2 (D)
  49. anemia is defined as:
    Decreased in oxygen carrying capacity in the blood (D)
  50. The presence of bicarbonate ions in the blood has an important direct effect, aside from the transport of CO2, that involves ______.
    .... Acid based (D)