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why do human need a very efficient respiratory system?
because we used it as a catalyst to produce ATP
list the components of the respiratory system
what is the primary function of the respiratory system?
to provide the body with O2 and get rid of CO2 waster
what is the secondary function of the respiratory system?
help regulate blood PH
what are the six physical requirements for a efficient respiratory system?
- 1-gas exchange surface
- 2-exchange of surface must be moist
- 3-extensive blood supply
- 4-effective blood supply
- 5-air must be processed
- 6-immune defence
respiration is the process of gas exchange in the body
what are the three steps to respiration
- 1-pulmonary ventilation
- 2-external respiration
- 3-internal respiration
what are the two regions of the respiratory system in the structural division of the system
- 1-the upper respiratory system
- 2-the lower respiratory system
what organs are found in the upper respiratory system
- 2-nasal cavity
what organs are found in the lower respiratory system?
larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
when we divide the two respiratory system functionally what are the two regions?
- 1-conducting zone
- 2-respiratory zone
what organs are found in the conducting region?
nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx down to bronchioles
what are the organs found in the respiratory system?
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli and bronchioles
how many nasal cartilages are there? and how many types
9 cartilage structures
how many bones are there in the nose
two nasal bones
six nasal chonchae (R&L, superior, middle, inferior
Where are the vestibule found in the nose?
anterior portion of the nasal cavity, just inside the nortrils
what are external nares?
two openings in the nose
what type of tissue lines the nasal cavity?
pseudostratified ciliated, columnar epithetial and goblet cells
what openings are found in the nasal cavity?
what divides the nasal cavity in to two separate chambers
what is the function of nose hair?
to filter out large air particles
what is the function of the nasal conchae?
causes air to create a vortex
what is the function of the nasal cavity?
- 1-clean, moisten and warm air
- 2-olfactory stimuli
- 3-resonating chamber
what opening defines the end of the nasal cavity?
what structures define the beginning and end of the pharynx?
internal nares to cricoid cartilage
what is the wall of the pharynx composed of?
skeletal muscle and lined with mucous membrane
what are the functions of the pharynx?
- 1-passageway for air and food
- 2-provides a resonating chamber
- 3-houses the tonsils
what are the 3 sub-regions of the pharynx?
where does the nasopharynx start and end?
its posterior to the nasal cavity and extends to the soft palate
where does oropharynx begin and end?
the oropharynx starts at the soft palate and extends to the level of the hyoid bone
where does the laryngopharynx start and end?
from hyoid bone to and ends at the esophagus
what tonsils are found in the pharynx?
- 1-the pharyngeal tonsil
- 2-the palatine tonsil
- 3-the lingual tonsil
what is the larynx composed of?
its composed of nine pieces of hyaline cartilage
what is the function of epiglottis?
to keep food from entering the lungs
what type of tissue lines the larynx?
ciliated mucous membrane
what are the false vocal chords?
upper fold-ventricular folds
what are the true vocal chords
lower fold-rima glottidis
describe the anatomy of the trachea
12cm long, composed of 16-20 C shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage
what is the carina?
internal divide of the trachea into L & R primary bronchis
describe the anatomy of the lungs
paired cone-shaped organ, enclosed within membrane
describe the anatomy of the bronchi tree within the lungs
trachea to primary bronchi to secondary bronchi to tertiary bronchi to bronchioles to terminal brochioles
where doe the exchange of respiratory gases begin?
what are the 4 layers of parts of the respiratory membrane
- 1-alveolar wall-type 1&2 alveolar cells and macrophages
- 2-epithelial basement membrane
- 3-capillary basement membrane
- 4-capillary endothelium
what tonsils are found in the pharynx?
- lingual tonsils
describe the anatomy of the respiratory membrane
- very thin, to allow diffusion of gases
- 300 million alveoli-large surface area for gas exchange
what does the term hypoxia mean?
low O2 levels
what is the significance of hypoxia for blood flow within the lungs?
vasocontriction in response, diverts pulmonary blood from areas of the lung to well-ventilated regions
define the term pulmonary ventilation
inhale and exhale of gases
define boyle's law
gas pressure is inversly proportional to the volume of the container, if container increase pressure decreases
what is inspiration
the process of breathing in
what are the principal muscles of inspiration during normal breathing?
diaphragm and external intercostals
what are the principle muscles of inspiration during labored breathing?
diaphragm, external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes and pectoralis minor
what is expiration
describe apnea breathing pattern
temporary stopping of breathing
what is trachypnea?
what is costal breathing?
pattern of shallow chest breathing
what is diaphragmatic breathing?
pattern of deep abdominal breathing
what does compliance mean?
the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expands
what conditions can decrease compliance?
- scar lung tissue
- insufficient surfactant
where is resistance primarily found in within the lung?
in the brochioles
which has higher resistance inhalation or exhalation?
what can control the amount of resistance within the lung?
stimulation from the sympathetic system
what does COPD mean?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
what is the normal respiration rate in one minute?
12 breaths per minute
what is MVR? and what is a normal volume?
Minute Ventilation, total inhaled and exhaled per minute about 6liters
What is AVR? and what's the normal value?
Alveolar Ventilation Rate, about 4200ml
define Henry's Law?
Amount of dissolved gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of gas and its solubility coefficient
Define Dalton's Law?
each gas mixture exerts its own pressure
what does the term partial pressure mean?
the pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
what is the normal atmospheric pressure at sea level?
what is the percent composition of gases in the atmosphere?
- 78.6% nitrogen
- 20.9% oxygen
- 0.93% argon
- 0.04% CO2
- 0.06% other gases
what is the partial pressure in the atmosphere at sea level?
what law governs the diffusion across a membrane of a mixture of gas?
Dalton's Law=The greater the pressure difference the faster the difussion
what are the three factors that determine the rate of diffusion of a gas?
- partial pressure difference
- surface area
- diffusion distance
- molecular weight and solubility of gas
where is most of the O2 carried in blood?
- 98.5% on RBC
- 1.5% in plasma
What is Homoglobin?
O2 transporting protein
how many molecules of oxygen does each hemoglobin carry?
what is the most important factor in determining the binding and dissociation of oxygen to hemoglobin?
partial pressure of O2
does maternal or fetal homoglobin havea higher affinity for oxygen?
yes the fetus has a higher affinity
is deoxygenated blood completely lacking oxygen?
no some O2 is left
at rest how much of the available O2 is used by tissues?
what is the Bohr effect
a decrease of blood Ph or increase of CO2 will cause homoglobin to release their O2 and stabilize Ph and Co2
does carbon monoxide or O2 have a higher affinity for hemoglobin?
O2 has higher affinity