what medication can you give for accomodative esotropia
what are side effects of chronic use of phospholine iodide and how can you prevent it?>
iris cyst formation; prevent by co administration of phenylephrine
what cells span from ILM to ELM
what do muller cells do
provide nutritional and structural support
where are nuclei of muller cells located
inner nuclear layer
what problems does rubella in first trimest give? Second trimester?
"1st trimester: cataracts, glaucoma (if you get cataracts, you never get glaucoma), deafness, cardiac problems; 2nd trimester: salt and pepper fundus"
what drugs can prevent prostaglandin mediated pupillary meiosis
what's the Na and K composition of the lens
"Na low, K high; adenoside triphosphatase pumps Na out and K in (current comes in at ant and posterior capsule and out through equatorial region)"
what is the blood supply to the nerve fiber layer portion of ON? Prelaminar and laminar portion? Retrolaminar portion? Proximal portion of intraorbital ON? Distal portion? Intracanalicular portion?
central retinal artery; short posterior ciliary arteries; pial vessels and short posterior ciliary arteries; central retinal artery; ophthalmic artery
what is avg depth of aC
what is nevus of ota
ipsilateral dermal melanocytosis in patients with ocular melanocytosis
what type collagen is stroma? What percent of cornea dry weight is it?
type 1; 70% (think I storm)
what are the layers of bruchs membrane
"inner basal lamina of RPE, inner collagenous zone, elastic fibers, outer collagenous zone, basal lamina of choriocapillaris (BCECB)"
is lipid solubility or water solubility more important for drug penetration of cornea
lipid solubility to penetrate lipophilic epithelium
what is the smallest overall muscle
what light is most harmful to retina; what chemicals act as blue filters
"blue light leads to formation of phototoxic compound A2E which damages cytochrome oxidase and leads to RPE and photoreceptor death (mechanism of dry amd), carotenoids lutein and zeazanthin act as blue filters"
what chemicals stimluate accomodation?
what CN has the longest course
IV (4 goes 4ever)
what subnuclei of CN III is fused and supplies axons to muscles of both eyes
what drugs are indirect cholinergics? Direct cholinergics?
pyridostigmine and phospholine iodide; pilocarpine
what part of ciliary body makes aqueous
what layer is responsbile for outer retinal blood barrier
mutations in pax6 are responsble for what diseases
1. hypothalamus to ciliospinal center of Budge-Waller 2. ciliospinal center to superior cervical ganglion 3. superior cervical ganglion to iris dilator muscle
what type of collagen is lens capsule
4 (lens capsule is basement membrane of the lens epithelium)
what pathway produces most energy from glucose metabolism in cornea? Most glucose?
TCA cycle (less glucose but more efficient); HMP shunt
what is the uveosclearl drainage pathway of aqueous
across ciliary body and into supraciliary space
where do anterior ciliary arteries arise
what synthesizes descement's membrane
when does tear production first occur
3-6 weeks after birth
what do goblet cells make
what syndrome do you think of with b/l CHRPE and what do you worry about
"gardner's syndrome: (aka FAP), colon cancer"
what molecule is regenerated in visual cycle
"light sensitive molecule of ""phototransduction"" 11-cis retinal (derivative of vit A) is regenerated for use by photoreceptors"
what is the process of phototransduction
converts light energy into electrical signals by the following steps 1. photon strikes 11-cis retinal causing it to isomerize into all-trans retinal 2. activation of covalently attached opsin molecule which then activates multiple G-protein mediated signaling pathways 3. closing of ion channels that prevent influx of Na and Ca 4. photoreceptor outer segment membrane becomes polarized
when does the dorsal ophthalmic artery become ophthalmic artery
6 week of gestation
where is the ora serrata closest to the limbus
wahts the most common site of rupture in the sclera from blunt trauma
"superonasal (other sites are the arc parallel to the limbus in the quadrant opposite site of impact, insertion of rectus muscles, and equator)"
what is the areds formualation
"vit C 500mg, vit E 400 IU, cupric acid 2 mg, beta-carotene 15mg, zinc ozide 80mg (think 2,15,80,400,500)"
what tissue is keratocytes derived from embryoloigcally
name a muscarinic agonist and how does it lower IOP
"pilocarpine; lowers IOP by causing contracture of the longitudinal ciliary muscles which causes tension on scleral spur (where it is attached), which opens TM"
what embryological tissue forms lacrimal drainage system
how many short posterior ciliary nerves and short posterior ciliary arteries enter the globe around the nerve? How many long posterior ciliary nerves and arteries?
describe the y sutures
there is a anterior Y and a posterior inverted Y
what is the volume of adult eye
what is willbrand's knee
"inferonasal retinal ganglion cell axons serving the superotemporal field decussate in the optic chiasm as they track posteriorly; before entering the contrallateral optic tract, they loop anteriorly for a short segment in willbrand's knee into the contralateral optic nerve "
where do older lens fibers go as new fibers are formed
pushed to the center like a tree
what is the bow region of the lens
"at the equator, near lens fibers elongate and their nuclei line up in the bow region, lens at this time express major intrinsic protein (MIP) which is presumably correlated with elongation of the cell"
what molecule is found in aqueous humor at concentrations 10-50x higerh than plasma
ascorbic acid (vit C)
the 3rd order neuron of sympathetic chain travels with what CN in the cavernous sinus
VI (for a few mm)
what percent have cilioretinal artery
which lens crystallins have largest size? Smallest size?
whats the most common ocular abnormality of FAS
optic nerve hypoplasia
rubella infection in 1st trimester causes what abnormalities? Second trimester?
"1st: cataracts, also deafness and cardiac 2nd: salt and pepper fundus"
describe cataracts seen with rubella
pearly white nuclear opacifications
what are 3 layers of TM
"uveal, sclerocorneal, juxtacanalicular"
"what mutation is associated with aniridia, posterior embryotoxon, peters anomaly, axenfeld anomaly, congenital cataract "
what glands do aprocrine hidrocystomas arise from
glands of moll (molly is a sweaty ape)
what glands produces reflex tears
what are the 3 stages of embryologic development of vitreous
"primary vitreous: hyaloid artery, vasa hyaloidea propia, some mesenchymal cells, tunica vasculosa lentis; secondary vitreous at 9th week replaces primary vitreous (remnants of primary vitreous are cloquet's canal, mittendorf's dot, bermeister's papillae), tertiary vitreous consists of zonular fibers which hold the lens in place"
what is cloquet's canal
s-shaped channel through the vitreous associated with regerssion of hyaloid vasculature
what syndrome is microspherophakia associated with?
what layer of TM is most responsible for aqueous resistance
what is average volume of posterior chamber
what serves as basis of EOG
what is best disease
"autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the VMD2 gene which encodes betrophin , a transmembrane chloride channel located in basolateral membrane of RPE"
how many decussations are there in pupillary light reflex and where are they
2; optic chiasm and pretectal nuclei
what blood vessel supplies distal portion of intraorbital optic nerve? Proximal portion?
central retinal artery; pial vessels and branches of ophthalmic artery supply proximal