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Most radiographs are taken in a _____ position.
What are the different types of x-ray machines used?
- portable units (Minray, Bowie)
- semi-portable units
- stationary or fixed unit
What is the mA for portable units? What does the mA mean for exposure time?
- 10 - 30 mA
- low amperage means long exposure times compared to small animal settings
What are portable units best suited for?
- not good for skull, cervical spine, or chest films
What is the mA for semi-portable machines?
up to 300 mA
What is the mA for stationary or fixed units?
up to 2000 mA machines
What is the stationary or fixed unit best suited for?
- larger structures
- head, spine, thorax, pelvis, shoulder
Other than the x-ray machine, what other equipment will we need?
- cassette holders
- cassette tunnels
- positioning blocks
- hot light
- film markers
How do we use film markers to label radiographs?
- label front (F) and hind (H) limbs especially for views below the carpus and tarsus
- label left (L) and right (R)
- indicate direction of beam
- markers are traditionally placed at the dorsal or lateral aspect of the limb
What kind of safety equipment do we need to use when taking radiographs?
- thyroid shields
- cassette holders
- machine stands
Doubling distance by _____ decreases x-ray intensity.
What do we need to have on the film label for a radiograph?
- patient ID
- hospital name and address
How do we prep the patient for a radiograph?
- may need to tranquilize
- remove any mud, dirt, bandage
- feet should be placed squarely
- for hoof shots: remove shoes, pick and clean foot with brush, pack foot with playdoh and cover with paper towel
How do we name radiographic views?
named according to the direction of the beam as it enters the patient and exits the patient
How do we name oblique views?
oblique views may have an angle listed between the first two terms
What are the terms we use for radiographs?
- dorsal (at or below the carpus or tarsus)
- palmar (at or below the carpus)
- plantar (at or below the tarsus)
- cranial (above the carpus or tarsus)
- caudal (above the carpus or tarsus)
Which terms are traditionally listed 1st?
front to back terms
What is the abbreviation for dorsal?
What is the abbreviation for palmar?
What is the abbreviation for plantar?
What is the abbreviation for cranial?
What is the abbreviation for caudal?
What is the abbreviation for medial?
What is the abbreviation for lateral?
What is the abbreviation for proximal?
What is the abbreviation for distal?
What is the abbreviation for oblique?
How do we name the oblique views?
first entry term/number of degrees/second entry term (hyphen) first exit term/second exit term
- example: dorso45lateral - palmaromedial oblique
- D45L - PaMO
When would we incorporate the use of the terms proximal and distal?
- when we have an oblique view that is side to side and up and down
- first entry term/number of degrees/second entry term/number of degrees/third entry term (hyphen) first exit term/second exit term/third exit term
- example: plantaro45lateral60proximal - dorsomediodistal
- Pl45L60Pr - DMDi
What is the old terminology?
- AP, APLMO, APMLO, PALMO, PAMLO