Anatomy.txt

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Meghan
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210
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Anatomy.txt
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2009-10-13 21:17:19
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Lecture Exam 1
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Chapters 1-3
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  1. Anatomy
    understanding the structure of the human body
  2. physiology
    understanding the functions of the human body
  3. Name the 7 levels of organization
    • 1. Chemical
    • 2. Organelles
    • 3. Cellular
    • 4. Tissues
    • 5. Organs
    • 6. Organ systems
    • 7. Human
  4. 1.Chemical Level
    contains atoms and molecules
  5. 2. Organelles
    Sub-cellular structures
  6. 3. Cellular
    Where life begins
  7. 4. Tissues
    • group of similar cells work together to preform a particular function. There are 4 types:
    • 1. epithelial tissue
    • 2. muscle tissue
    • 3. connective tissue
    • 4. nervous tissue
  8. 5. Organs
    composed of different kinds of tissue (2 or more) that combine to form structures with specific functions. Usually have a recognisable form.
  9. 6. Organ Systems
    Composed of several different organs, organized to preform a common function.
  10. 7 Characteristics that describe life
    • 1. metabolism
    • 2. responsiveness
    • 3. movement
    • 4. growth
    • 5. differentiation
    • 6. reproduction
    • 7. evolve
  11. 1. Metabolism
    • catabolism - large molecules are broken down into smaller ones (i.e- energy)
    • anabolism - building up large molecules from small ones (i.e.- proteins)
  12. 2. Responsiveness
    detecting external and internal stimuli and responding in an appropriate matter.
  13. 3. Movement
    going from cellular to orgismal level
  14. 4. Growth
    • An increase in size
    • either in number or stuff between cells
  15. 5. differentiation
    unspecialized stem cells become specialized (i.e.- zygote --> human)
  16. Homeostasis
    maitenance of nearly static or constant conditions in the internal environment
  17. intracellular fluid
    fluid inside the cell
  18. extracellular fluid
    • fluid outside the cell. Broken down into:
    • Interstitial= 80%
    • Blood Plasma= 20% (body has the most control over)
    • Transcellular= <1%
  19. 3 components of controls mechanisms
    • 1. Receptor/Sensor
    • 2. Control Center
    • 3. Effector
  20. 1. Receptor/Sensor
    monitors variable (i.e.- baro receptors)
  21. 2. Control Center
    • Integrating info
    • Input
    • Sets range of various values
    • vaso monitor center
    • generate output (response)
  22. 3. Effector
    • Recieve output
    • produces change
  23. 2 kinds of control mechanisms
    • 1. Positive Feedback - increase/reinforve stimulis (i.e.- childbirth, blood clotting, orgasm, urination)
    • 2. Negative Feedback - produces results that reduces/opposes the stimulus and returns value to normal range (most common)
  24. 2 major organ systems
    • 1. Nervous System
    • 2. Endocrine system
  25. Nervous system
    • skeletal muscle
    • secretory activities
    • smooth muscle contractions
    • cardiac system
    • *fast and rapid response
  26. Endocrine System
    • Hormones
    • Metabolic functions
    • Growth & developement
    • Smooth muscle contractions
    • *long term
  27. Lateral
    away from the midline
  28. medial
    toward the midline
  29. Contralateral
    structures on opposite sides of the body
  30. Ipsilateral
    structures on the same side of the body
  31. Proximal
    Closer to attachment
  32. Distal
    farther from attachment
  33. Superior
    toward the head
  34. Inferior
    away from the head
  35. Cephalic (cranial)
    Head
  36. Anterior (ventral)
    part of the body that moves forward
  37. Posterior (dorsal)
    part of the body that is in the back
  38. Form Follows Function
    form/structure of your body part is related to its function
  39. Water is a polar molecule because:
    It is neutral, but positive and negative charges distribution/orientation is uneven
  40. 4 important properties of water
    • 1. Good solvent
    • 2. Chemical Reactions
    • 3. High heat capacity
    • 4. Good lubricant
  41. Why is water a good solvent?
    • Dissolves the following:
    • 1. ionized substances (Na+, CL-)
    • 2. Polar substances (glucose/sugars)
    • 3. Molecules with charges (proteins)
  42. Why is water not a good solvent?
    Doesn't dissolve molecules with nonpolar covalent bonds (Fats, oils, lipids)
  43. Hydrophilic
    Dissolves in water
  44. Hydrophobic
    doesnt dissolve in water
  45. Water - High heat capacity
    absorb or release large amounts of heat energy without or with little change in its own temperature.
  46. Water - As a lubricant
    i.e.- mucus(in abdominal, pelvic, heart cavities, etc)
  47. Water- chemical reactions
    • works as a medium for chemical reactions
    • hydrolysis
    • dehydration synthesis
  48. Inorganic Compounds
    • lack carbon
    • usually simple molecule(i.e.- H20,Nacl, etc)
  49. Organic Compound
    • contain carbon
    • usually contain hydrogen
    • always held together by covalent bonds
    • i.e.- sugars, proteins, lipids, DNA
  50. Inorganic acids when placed in water
    • Dissociate into:
    • 1. One or more H+
    • 2. One or more Anion
    • acid > H+ + Anion
    • HCL > H+ + CL-
  51. Inorganic bases when placed in water
    • Dissociate into:
    • 1. one or more OH-
    • 2. one or more cation
    • base > OH- + CATION
    • KOH > OH- + k+
  52. Inorganic salts when placed in water
    • Dissociate into:
    • 1. Anion
    • 2. Cation
    • neither can be H+ or OH-
    • salt > CATION + ANION
    • NaCL > Na+ + CL-
  53. Ph scale
    ACID >7< BASE
  54. mixture
    a combination of elements/compounds that are blended/mixed together but not chemically bonded together
  55. 3 types of liquid mixtures
    • 1. Solution
    • 2. Colloid
    • 3. Suspension
  56. 1. Solution
    • Solvent + solutes -> solution
    • usually have more solvent than soloutes
    • solutes randomly but evenly dispursed among the solvent molecules
    • solutes very small (clear)
  57. 2. Colloid
    • mixture of solvent and larger particles (i.e.- milk)
    • opaque
    • do not settle out (remain suspended)
  58. 3. Suspension
    • mixture that contains a solvent and EVEN larger particles
    • will settle out (i.e.- sand/water)
  59. 4 major types of organic molecules found in the body
    • 1. Carbohyrates
    • 2. Lipids
    • 3. Proteins
    • 4. Nucleic Acids
  60. Why is carbon a good atom for complex molecules?
    • builds easily
    • 4 bonds per atom
  61. Macromolecule
    large molecules composed of many smaller units (i.e.- amino acids, proteins)
  62. polymer
    large, composed of many smaller units, all of the same kind
  63. monomer
    smaller units
  64. 3 major groups of carbohydrates
    • 1. monosaccaride (simple sugar - glucose, fructose, glactose, ribose, deoxyribose) characterized from 3-7 carbon atoms
    • 2. disaccaride (2 monosaccaride - glucose + fructose = sucrose)Lactose, maltose
    • 3. polysaccaride (starch, glycogen)
  65. Functions of Carbohydrates in the human body
    • energy
    • structural
    • signal molecules
  66. 3 major types of lipids
    • 1. Triglycerids
    • 2. Phospholipids
    • 3. Steroids
  67. 1. Triglycerids
    • COMPOSED OF:
    • 1 glycerol molecule
    • 3 fatty acids
  68. 2. Phospholipids
    • 1 glycerol molecule
    • 2 fatty acids
    • 1 phosphate group
    • HAS 2 PARTS:
    • 1. Polar head (hydrophillic)
    • 2. Non-polar tail (hydrophobic)
  69. 3. Steroids
    4 carbon rings (takes cholesterol and modifies - like hormones, bile salts, vitamin D)
  70. Functions of proteins in the body
    • 1. structural
    • 2. contractal
    • 3. immunological
    • 4. transport
    • 5. catalytic (enzymes)
  71. Proteins are made of:
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • (AMINO ACIDS)
  72. What type of bond holds amino acis together?
    Peptide Bond
  73. 4 Levels of structural Organization of proteins
    • 1. Primary Structure (sequence of amino acids)
    • 2. Seconary structure ( alpha helix, pleated sheet)
    • 3. Tertiary structure (3-dimensional shape)
    • 4. Quarternary structure (2 or more polypeptide, hemoglobin = 4 polypeptides)
  74. Why is structure in proteins so important?
    because if you change the structure you will be changing the function
  75. Enzyme
    • work as catalysts. Consist of two parts:
    • 1. apoenzyme
    • 2. cofactor
  76. DNA & RNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • Ribonucleic Acid
    • Composed of Nucleotides (sugar, base, phosphate group)
  77. ATP
    Adenosine Triphosphate - nucleotide - energy
  78. 4 Principle parts of a cell
    • 1. Cell membrane (intracellular, extracellular)
    • 2 Cytosal (proteins, ions, CYTOPLASM)
    • 3. Organelles (highly organized structures with characteristic shapes and specialized functions)
    • 4. Nucleus
  79. Plasma Membrane
    "Gate Keeper"
  80. Parts if the plasma membrane
    • 75% phospholipids
    • cholesterol, glycolipids
    • proteins
  81. Phospholipid bilayer
    • hydrophillic heads
    • hydrophobic tails
  82. Proteins found in the plasma membrane
    • 1. Integral proteins
    • 2. peripheral proteins
  83. 6 functions of proteins in the Plasma Membrane
    • 1. Channel Proteins
    • 2. Transporter Proteins
    • 3. Receptor Proteins
    • 4. Enzymes
    • 5. Cell Identity Marker Proteins
    • 6. Linker Proteins
  84. 1. Channel proteins
    • passageway (specific substance)
    • ions usually pass through
  85. 2. Transporter Proteins
    • specific as to substance
    • change shape
    • may or may not require energy
    • PASSIVE or ACTIVE
  86. 3. Receptor Proteins
    • bind to Ligands
    • alters function of the cell
  87. 4. Enzymes
    catalyzes reactions on the cell's surface
  88. 5. Cell Identity Marker Proteins
    identifies cells as your own
  89. 6. Linker Proteins
    • attachment points, cell to cell connection
    • provide structural stability
    • anchor things to them
    • provide movement
  90. 3 Physiological properties of the Plasma Membrane
    • 1. Communication
    • 2. Electro Chemical Gradient
    • 3. Membrane Permeability
  91. Active Transport
    require energy by the cell (i.e - vesucular transport)
  92. Passive Transport
    Require no energy by the cell
  93. Primary/Secondary Active Transport
    • Primary - move substance against concentration gradient using ATP and protein pump
    • Secondary - use concentration gradient from primary and use to move a second substance
  94. 3 Passive Processes
    • 1. Diffusion (Osmosis)
    • 2. Diffusion through a channel
    • 3. Facilitated Diffusion
  95. 5 factors that influence diffusion
    • 1. steepness of concentraion gradient
    • 2. temperature (high temp = high kinetic energy)
    • 3. size/mass of particles
    • 4. surface area
    • 5. diffusion distance
  96. Osmotic Pressure
    Force of water molecules moving from high concentration to low concentration
  97. Tonicity
    • Concentration of solutes:
    • Isotonic = normal
    • Hypotonic = less solutes (hemolysis or lysis)
    • Hypertonic = more solutes (crenated)
  98. Organelles
    specialized structure that have a characteristic shape and that preform specific functions
  99. Ribosomes
    • Proteins synthesis
    • many attached to the Rough ER
  100. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • flattened sacs
    • protein synthesis and modification
  101. Smooth ER
    • extends off the rough er(no ribosomes)
    • synthsis of lipids
  102. Golgi Complex
    • flattened membrane sacs
    • entrance = cisface
    • exit = transface
  103. Lysosome
    • produced from the Golgi Complex
    • Digests
  104. Mitochondria
    • "POWER HOUSE"
    • produces ATP
  105. Cillia and Flagella
    • cillia - numerous and short
    • flagella - fewer and longer (sperm)

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