Body Structure

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Body Structure
2013-03-28 11:54:17
Respiratory System

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  1. What is the nasal mucosa?
    • The nasal mucosa:
    • -Lines the nasal cavities
    • -Lined with Goblet Cells
    • -Heats and moisturizes the incoming air
  2. Goblet Cells?
    Produce mucus: which traps bacteria and air pollution
  3. 3 parts of the Pharynx?
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  4. The Nasopharynx
    • The uppermost portion, located about the soft palate
    • It is a passageway for air only
  5. Soft Palate
    Elevates during swallowing to block the nasopharynx and prevent food and saliva from going up rather than down
  6. Oropharynx
    • Located behind the mouth
    • Passageway for air and food
    • Lateral walls contain the palatine tonsils
  7. Laryngopharynx
    • Passageway for air and food
    • opens anteriorly to the larynx and posterior to the esophagus
  8. Larynx
    "Voice box" 

    • Functions: 
    • -Speaking
    • -air passageway btwn the pharynx and the trachea
  9. Epiglottis
    • The uppermost cartilage
    • -During swallowing the epiglottis closes over the top, to prevent entry of saliva or food into the larynx
  10. Pathway for the bronchial tree
    Primary bronchi --> Secondary Bronchi --> bronchioles --> alveoli
  11. Primary Bronchi
    • Right and left
    • The branches of the trachea that enter the lungs
    • Right is shorter than the left
  12. Secondary Bronchi
    • to the lobes of each lung
    • 2 in the right lung
    • 3 in the left lung
  13. Bronchioles
    • Have no cartilage in their walls
    • Smaller branches
  14. Alveoli
    Smallest bronchioles that terminate into clusters of alveoli

    Air sacs of the lungs
  15. Parietal pleura
    lines the chest wall
  16. Visceral pleura
    is on the surface of the lungs
  17. Serous fluid
    • Between the parietal and visceral pleura that prevents friction 
    • keeps the membranes together during breathing
  18. Alveoli
    • Air Sacs 
    • Sight of gas exchange in the lungs
  19. Within the alveoli are ___ that phagocytize pathogens
  20. Each alveolus is lined with a thin layer of what and why?
    • Tissue fluid
    • it is essential for the diffusion of gases
    • (because a gas must dissolve in a liquid in order to enter or leave a cell)
  21. Alveolar type 2 cells
    a secretes a lipidprotein (pulmonary surfactant) -- that mixes with the tissue fluid and decreases its surface tension, permitting inflation
  22. Venilation
    Movement of air to and from the alveoli/lungs

    • 2 Aspects:
    • Inhalation
    • Exhalation
  23. Respiratory Centers
    Medulla and Pons
  24. Domed shaped muscle made of skeletal muscle  (separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities) and is below the lungs that is
  25. Respiratory muscles
    • Diaphragm 
    • external and internal intercostals
  26. The pressure of the air around us? At sea level it is 760 mmHg
    Atmospheric Pressure
  27. The pressure within the potential pleural space between the parietal and visceral pleura
    -usually slightly below atmospheric pressure 
    "Negative Pressure"
    Intrapleural Pressure
  28. the pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli; fluctuates during breathing
    Interpulmonic pressure
  29. Motor impulses from the medulla travel along the phrenic nerves to the diaphragm, which contracts and moves down. 
    Impulses are sent along intercostal nerves to external intercostal muscles, which pull ribs up and out
    Process of Inhalation
  30. As the lungs expand, intrapulmonic pressure ___ (inc/dec) and air enters the ____?
    • decreases
    • nose
  31. Tidal volume
    the amount of air in one normal inhale and exhale

    average = 500 mL
  32. Minute respiratory volume (MRV)
    the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 minute

    MRV = Tidal vol X # of respiration's/min
  33. Residual air volume
    the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation

    average =1000-1500 mL
  34. What test is used to diagnose emphysema?
    Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)
  35. 2 Sites of gas exchange
    • 1) Between air in alveoli and blood
    • 2) Between blood and tissue fluid
  36. The exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
    External respirations
  37. The exchange of gases between blood in the systemic capillaries and the tissue fluid
    Internal respirations
  38. Inhaled air composed of
    • 21% O2
    • 0.04 % CO2
  39. Exhaled air composed of
    • 16 % O2
    • 4.5 CO2
  40. Partial Pressure
    • concentration of each gas in a particular site
    • measured in mmHg
  41. Hemoglobin
    Carries O2 in the blood
  42. Factors that increase the release of more O2?
    • Low PO2
    • High temp
    • High CO2
  43. The O2 - Hemoglobin bond is formed by the lungs when PO2 is ___ (high/low), when the blood passess through the tissues with a low PO2 the bond breaks and the ___ is released into the tissue
    • low
    • O2
  44. The lower the O2 concentration the ___ (+/-) O2 the hemoglobin will release?
  45. The higher the PO2 the ___ (+/-) the SaO2
    • the higher
    • the are related
  46. Carbon dioxide is carried by what in the blood?
    Hemogloboin - Carbaminohemoglobin
  47. Most carbon in the plasma is carried in the form of?
    bicarbonate ions
  48. Where does the CO2 diffuse when it enters the blood?
    Red blood cells
  49. Two types of mechanisms that regulate breathing
    • Nervous mechanisms
    • Chemical Mechanisms
  50. The Medulla contains which centers?
    the inspiration and expiration centers
  51. The respiratory centers in the pons work with the with inspiration centers to produce what?
    normal rhythms of breathing
  52. This center prolongs inhalation and then interrupted
    Apneustic center
  53. Interrupts the apneustic center, and contributes to exhalation
    pneumaotaxic center
  54. Refers to the effect on breathing of blood pH and blood levels of O2 and CO2
    Chemical Regulation
  55. Chemoreceptors
    • detect changes in blood gases and pH
    • located in the carotid and aortic bodies
  56. Hypoxia
    decrease in blood oxygen levels
  57. hypercapnia
    • excess of CO2
    • makes the blood more acidic
  58. Major regulator of respiration
    Carbon dioxide (b/c it affects the pH of blood)
  59. Reasons why O2 would be the major regulator of respirations
    People with severe chronic pulmonary diseases: emphysema
  60. Respiratory Acidosis
    • Occurs when respiration rate decreaes
    • CO2 increases 
    • pH decreases

    Examples: pneumonia,emphysema,severe asthma
  61. Respiratory Alkalosis
    • occurs when respiratory rate increases
    • CO2 decreases
    • increases pH
  62. Examples of Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Hyperventilation
    • Crying for long periods
    • Traveling to high altitudes