A&P Medic 14 Chapter 11
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A&P Medic 14 Chapter 11
Chapter 11 Blood
presence of oxygen; hypoxia
a piercing; venipuncture
Describe the important components and major functions of blood. (pp.408)
Three components of the Cardiovascular system
The circulating fluid of the body is _____.
Blood is a specialized __________ tissue, that is suspended in a fluid matrix.
5 Major Functions of blood
1. Transportation of dissolved gasses,nutrients,hormones,and metabolic wastes.
2.Regulation of the pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids throughout the body.
3.Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites.
4.Defense against toxins and pathogens.
5.Stabilization of body temperature.
The fluid matrix of blood is called
Blood consists of
45% Formed elements
Dissolved proteins as rather then network of insoulable fibers.
Formed elements are
blood cells, and cell fragments(platelets)
Red blood cells, Or Erythrocytes
Transport O2, and CO2
White blood cells, or leukocytes
part of body's defense system
small membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes and factors important for blood clotting
Plasma and formed elements constitute _____ blood
used to evaluate blood gass exchange at the lungs
Three characteristics of whole blood
Temp around 100.4
Viscosity- 5 times as viscous as water
pH 7.35- 7.45
Objective: Discuss the composition and functions of plasma(pp.408-410)
dissolved proteins 7%
Other solutes 1%----->Electrolytes,organic nutrients, organic wastes
Plasma and interstitial fluid account for most of
the volume of ECF in the body
Major contributor to osmotic pressure of plasma;transports lipids,steroid hormnes
Transports ions,hormones,lipids;immune function
Essential component of clotting system; can be converted to insoluble fibrin
Other solutes (1%)
Normal extracellular fluid ion composition essential for vital cellular activities
Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3-
Used for ATP production,growth, and maintenance of cells
Carried to sites of breakdown or excretion
Primary difference between plasma and intersititial fluid:
concentrations of dissolved proteins and the levels of respiratory gasses (O2 and CO2)
Protein difference due to plas,a proteins are too large to cross walls of capillaries.
gas difference is due to respiratory activities of cells
Most abundent protein
contribute to osmotic pressure of plasma
Antibodies and transport proteins.
Also called immunoglobulins, attack proteins and pathogens
bind small ions,hormones, or compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidney or have very low solubility in water
Both albumins and globulins can bind to
protein/lipid combo readily dissolves in plasma this:
allows the Cardiovascular system transports insolluable lipids to peripheral tissues
Globular proteinds involved in lipid transport care called
Fibrinogen functions in
Under certain conditions, fibrinogen molvecules interact and form large insoluable strands of
Serum is the
fluid left after clotting proteins are removed
What organ synthesizes more then 90% of the plasma proteins including all albumins and fibrinogens, and most of the globulins.
Describe the origins and production of the formed elements in the blood. (pp. 410-411)
Formed elements in Whole blood are
Formed elements are produced by
hemopoiesis, or hemATOpoiesis
Embryonic blood cells appear in the bloodstream in the _ week of development
The primary sites of blood formation for the first 8 weeks of development are:
Vessels of the yolk sac, which is an embryonic membrane
As organ systems being to develop, what moves out of the bloodstream and into the liver,thymus, and bone marrow.
Embryonic blood cells
Those embryonic blood cells become:
pluripotent stem cells, or hemocytoblasts.
which divide to produce myeloid stem cells and lympoid stem cells
From the 2ed to 5th month of development, what two organs become the primary site of hemopoisesis
Liver and spleen
In Adults the only site where hemopoiesis preformed is:
Red bone marrow
only site for RBC
Primary for WBC
Objective: Discuss the characteristics of RBC's (pp.411-416)
RBC's contain hemoglobin which is?
a pigment that binds and transports oxygen and CO2.
RBS are most the most abundant blood cell and account for what % of formed elements
RBC's per Microliter of whole blood is
Adult males contain roughly 5.4 million RBCs
females 4.8 million RBCS
a single drop contains 260 million RBCs
1/3 of 75 trillion cells in the human body are RBCs
The percentage of whole blood volume occupied by cellular elements is known as?
Hematocrit values in males VRS females
: 46% range
: 42% range
Difference between male and female hematocrit levels are due to:
Androgens(male) stimulate RBC production
Estrogens (female) do not.
Whole blood contains 1000 RBC for each WBC so
hematocrit closely approximates volume of RBS
Hematocrit values are often reported as VPRC(volume of packed red cells) or PCV (packed cell volume)
hematocrit decreases due to
result of internal bleeding or problems with RBC formation
Structure of RBCs
Biconcave disc with a thin central region and thick outer margin
This shape has two important effects on RBC's
Gives each RBC a relatively large surface are volume ratio that increases the rate of diffusion
It enables RBCs to bend and flex to squeeze through narrow capillaries
RBCs loose most of their organelles,including mitochondria,ribosomes, and nuclei, during?
Undergo cell division, and syntheize structural proteins
RBC's obtain energy only through
anaerobic metabolism and rely on glucose obtained from surrounding plasma
The lack of mitochondria insures that the oxygen they absorb will...
be carried to peripheral tissues and not used by the RBC
Molecules of Hb (hemoglobin) account for over __% of an RBCs intracellular proteins
Hemoglobin is responsible for the cells ability to?
Transport 02 and CO2
Two pairs of globular proteins combine to form a
single Hb molecule
Each subunits of Hb contain an organic pigment called
Each heme molecule...
holds an iron ion so that it can interact with an O2 molecule
iron-oxygen interaction is very weak, so
they can easily separate
Amount of 02 that bind to Hb depends of conditions of surrounding plasma:
If O2 is abundent in plasma
Hb molecules gain O2 until all heme molecules are occupied.
As O2 concentration declines and CO2 rise
Hb molecules release their oxygen reserves and the globular portion of the Hb bind to CO2
At the lungs where diffusion brings O2 into the plasma and removes CO2, Hb molecules respond by releasing ___ and absorbing __
In the peripheral tissues, active cells consume O2 and produce CO2. As blood flows through these areas, O2 is diffuses out of the plasma and CO2 diffuses in. Hb releases its bound __ and binds ___.
O2 and CO2
Low hemarocrit or RBCs jave reduced Hb content.
Premature muscle fatique, weakness, and general lack of energy
Round trip for RBC in the circulatory system usually takes less then?
RBC life span is about
1% of RBC are replaced
each day and approximately 3 million new RBCs enter circulation each second.
When RBCs age or rupture, Hb is breaks down in the blood and the indivdual polypeptide chains are filtered from the blood by the?
kidney and is lost in urine
The condition Hemoglobinuria is when?
large numbers of RBCS break down in the circulation, urine can turn reddish or brown thus producing hemoglobinuria
Only 10% of RBS survive long enough to rupture or_________ in the blood stream
Macrophages in the liever,spleen, and bone marrow usually recongnise and engulf RBCs before they undergo hemolysis, thus doing what?
recycling Hb and other components of RBCs
Steps of Hb recycling 1
Four globular proteins of each Hb are dissembled into their component amino acids.
They are either metabolized by the cell or released into circulation for use by other cells.
Steps of Hb recycling 2
Each heme molecule is stripped of its iron and converted to biliverdin, then converted to bilirubin and released into circulation.
Liver cells absorb the billirubin and release it into the small intestine within bile.
billirubin that reaches the large intestine is converted to related pigment molecules with are either absorbed into the blood stream or excreted in urine
Steps of Hb recycling 3
Iron extracted from heme may be stored in the marcophage or realeased into the bloodstream where it binds to transferrin (plasma transport protein)
RBCs developing in the bone marrow absorb ammino acids and transferrin from circulation and then make new Hb molecules
Excess transferrins are removed in the liver and spleen
an organic compound with a green color
orange yellow pigment
If bile ducts are blocked, bilirubin diffuses into peripheral tissue giving them a
yellow color most apparent in the sking and sclera of the eyes
most components of an RBC are recycled either bu
hemolusis or phagocytosis
Normal iron levels
male 3.5g in ionic form Fe2+, 2.5g bound to Hb
female 2.4 g and 1.9 g
RBC formation or erythopoiesis occurs in?
Red bone marrow or Myeloid tissue
Myeloid tissue is located in the
vertebrae,sternum,scapulae,pelvis, and proximal limb bones
Other marrow ares contain a fatty tissue known as
yellow bone marrow
Under extreme conditions
yellow bone marrow can convert to Red bone marrow
Specialists in blood formation and function are
RBCs result from the divsion of ____________ in the red bone marrow.
hemocytoblasts (pluripotent stem cells)
myeloid stem cells
are very immature RBCs that actively synthesize Hb,
After about 4 days of differntiation, each eyrthoblast sheds its nucleus and becomes a reticulocyte.
After about two or three days in the bone marrow synthesizing proteins Reticulocytes enter the
After 24 hrs reticulocytes
complete their maturation and become mature RBCS
Erythropoisesis needs what to proceed normally
the red bone marrow must receive adquate supplies of ammino acids, iron and vitamens (B12, B6, and folic acid)
pernicious anemia is a result of
Lack of B12
erythropoiesis stimulating hormone
appears in plasma when peripheral tissues especially kidneys are exposed to low oxygen concentration.
state of low tissue oxygen levels
EPO is released when
when blood flow of the kidneys declines
when oxygen content of the air in the lungs declines
respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damaged
Two major effects of EPO
stimulates increased cell division rates in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts
speeds up maturation of RBS, primarily acceleration the rate of Hb synthesis
EPO ability is important to
person recovering from severe blood loss
If hematocrit rise over 65 or ore
the increase in blood viscosity increases the workload of the heart which can lead to sudden death from heart failure
Explain the factors that determine a persons blood type, and why blood types are important.(pp. 417-419)
most often proteins that can trigger an immune response
All your cell membranes contain antigens, and attack substances they see as
Absence or presence of these antigens determines your blood type
A,B, and Rh
Has only A antigen
only B antigen
Has both A and B
has neither A or B
indicates presence of the Rh antigen on the surface of RBCs
Absence of the Rh antigen
Plasma contains antibodies/agglutinins that will attack surface antigens of a
different blood type
Binding of antigens and antibodies is called
RBCS may hemolyze
Cross reactions or transfusion reacions can be avoided by ensuring blood types of donor and recipient are
Rh- are present only if the indivudal has been
sentized by a previous exposure to Rh-
can occur with a Rh- mom carries Rh- positive fetus
Categorize the various WBC on the basis of their structures and functions. (pp. 419-424)
known as leukocytes
Larger then RBC
they contain a nucleus and other organelles
defend body against invasion by pathogens and remove toxins,wastes,abnormal or damaged cells
Tranditionally divided in two groups
Granulocytes (with abundent stained granules)
agranulocytes (with few if any stained granules)
Misleading because grandules in granulocytes are actually secretory vesicles and lysosomes
Most WBCs in body are located in
Connective tissue proper or in organs of the lymphatic system
WBC circulation and movement
only circulate for short period of lifespan
migrate through loose and bense tissue of body
use bloodstream to travel from one organ to another and area of invasion or injury
when problems are detected WBC leave bloodsteam to enter damaged area
Circulating WBC have 4 characteristics
1.Capable of amoeboid movement. Allows WBCs to move from walls of blood vessels, and when outside the bloodstream,through surrounding tissues.
2.Migrate out of bloodstream through diapesis
3.Positive chemotaxis-They are attracted to specific chemical stimuli,guides WBS to invading pathogens,damaged tissues, and other active WBCs.
4.Neutrophils,esinophils, and monocytes are capable of phagocytosis.
is gliding motion accomplished by the flow of cytoplasm into slender cellular process extended out from the cell
WBC can enter surrounding tissue by squeezing between adjacent epithelial cells in the capillary wall
Neutrophils and esinophils are sometimes called
microphages to distinguish them from lager marcophages in connective tissue
monocutes that have moved out of the blood stream and have become actively phagocytic
Which WBC contribute to nonspecific defences?
non specific defense
responds to a variety of stimuli but always in the same way.
WBC responsible for specific defenses is
the body's ability to attack invading pathogens or foreign proteins on a specific basis
50-70% circulating WBC
very dense controted nucleus with 4-5 lobes
Usually first WBC to arrive at injury site
Very active phagocytes
specialize in attacking and digesting bacteria
Short life span(10 hrs)
during its breakdown releases chemicals that attract other neutrophils
dead nutrophils help make puss
2-4% of WBC
simimlar in size to neutrophils
two lobed nuculeus
red dye eosin
Attack objects coated wtih antibodies
primary mode of attack exocytosis of toxic compounds.
Numbers increase dramatically during aparasitic infection of an allergic reaction
somewhat smaller then neutrophils
relatively rare less then 1% of WBC
Migrate to site of injury,cross the capillary wall to accumulate within damaged tissues.
Contain heparin and histamine
basophil release of histamine that enhances local inflammation initiated by mast cells
larger then RBC
20-30% of WBC in blood
do not rely on phagocytosis
attack foreign/abnormal cells
secrete antibodies into circulation
indicates reduced numbers of WBCs
refers to excessive numbers of WBCs
usually indicated by extreme ammounts of WBC
lymphoid stem cells which give rise to lymphocytes
myeloid stem cells which give rise to all other types of formed elements
process of lymphocyte production
WBCs other then lymphocytes are regulated by hormones cakked
CSFs (colony-stimulating factors)
4 CSFs have been identified
each targets single stem cell lines or groups of stem cell lines
made of thrombocytes
megakaryocytes continusouesly shed cytoplasm in small membrane enclosed packets, those packets are referred to as
Platelets initiate the clotting process and help close injured blood cells. They are a major participant in
vascular clotting system
individual platelet circulates for
abnormally low platelet count
accellerated platelet formation in response to infection,inflammation or cancer
Objective: Describe mechanisms that reduce blood loos after an injury(pp.425-428)
process that halts bleeding, preventing the loss of blood through the walls of damaged vessels.
helps establish framework for tissue repair
Three overlapping steps of hemostasis
Vascular phase 1
Cutting of a blood vessel triggers a contraction in smooth muscle fibers in vessel(vascular spasm)
can slow or stop the blood loss through the wall of a small vessel.
vascular spams lasts about 30 min
Platelet phase 2
Platelets begin to attach to stiky endothelial surfaces and exposed collagen fibers within 15 seconds of injury.
This attachment starts the platelet phase
as more platelets stick together they form a platelet plug
coagulation phase 3
coagulation phase does not start until 30 seconds or more after vessel has been damaged.
involves complex squence of events that convert circulating fibrinogen into fibrin
Normal blood clotting cannot occur unless the plasma contains
the necessary clotting factors which include calcium ions and 11 different plasma proteins.
During the coagulation phase, clotting proteins interact in sequence known as
a chain reaction or cascade
Three cascades which result in formation of a blood clot
outside the blood steam in the vessel wall
inside the blood steam
The cascades join at the common pathway through the activation of
factor X, clotting protein produced by liver
begins with the release of a lipoprotein tissue factor by damaged endothelial cells or peripheral tissues
greater the damage the more tissue factor is released and faster clotng occurs
tissue factor combines with calciumions and factor VII to form enzyme capable of activating factor X
begins with the activation of proenzymes exposed to collagen fibers at the injury site
this pathway proceeds with assistace of platelet facor released by aggregating platelets
after series of linked events, activated clotting proteins form an enzyme capable of activating factor X
begins when enzymes from either the extrinsic or intrinsic pathway activate factor X, forming the enzyme prothrombinase
Prothrombinase converts the protein prothrombin into
Thrombin then completes the clottong process by converting
fibrinogen to fibrin
Thrombin stimulates the formation of
tissue factor and release of platelet factor by platelets
Calcium Ions and Vitamin K affect
almost every aspect of clotting process
All threepathways require
Vitamen K must be present so
the liver can synthesize 4 of the clotting facorts (including prothrombin)
once fibrin netowork has appeared, platelets contract pulling the torn edges of the wound closer
as repairs proceed the clot gradually dissolves, beings with the activation of plasminogen by thrombin and t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator) activation of plasminogen produces plasmin
beings digesting the fibrin stands and breaking down the clot