Test 4.txt

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fnmason
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210019
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Test 4.txt
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2013-03-28 12:41:45
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Urinary Metabolism
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Urinary/Metabolism
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  1. 1. The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of

    A. electrons
    B. sodium ions
    C. potassium ions.
    D. calcium ions.
    B. sodium ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. 2. Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called

    A. electrons.
    B. electrolytes.
    C. osmoregulators.
    D. nonelectrolytes.
    E. buffers
    B. electrolytes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. 3. The principal cation intercellular fluid is

    A. calcium.
    B. sodium.
    C. chloride.
    D. magnesium.
    E. potassium.
    E. potassium.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. 4. Someone with a total cholesterol level between 200 and 239 mg/dl should

    A. lose weight if overweight
    B. modify their diet
    C. reduce the amount of saturated fat in the diet
    D. All of the answers are correct
    E. have annual checkups
    D. All of the answers are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. 5. Each cytochrome contains

    A. a metal ion
    B. a lipoprotein.
    C. an inorganic salt.
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    E. an ATP synthase.
    A. a metal ion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. 6. The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to

    A. conserve sodium ions.
    B. conserve sodium ions and decrease ECF.
    C. decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions
    D. decrease ECF.
    E. excrete sodium ions.
    C. decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. 7. List in order the structures of the renal corpuscle that a substance must pass through during filtration:

    1. filtration slit (slit pore)
    2. capsular space
    3. dense layer
    4. capillary endothelium

    A. 4, 3, 2, 1
    B. 4, 1, 2, 3
    C. 2, 4, 3, 1
    D. 3, 1, 4, 2
    E. 4, 3, 1, 2
    E. 4, 3, 1, 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. 8. The mechanism for producing a concentrated urine involves

    A. a high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts.
    B. aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collection duct cells.
    C. an increase in facultative waste reabsorption.
    D. the secretion of an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the neurohypophsis
    E. All of the answers are correct.
    E. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. 9. A glomerulus is

    A. attached to the collecting duct
    B. a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
    C. the horseshoe-shaped segment of the nephron.
    D. the expanded end of a nephron.
    E. the source of erythropoietin.
    B. a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. 10. Urine is eliminated through the

    A. kidney.
    B. urethra.
    C. ureter.
    D. urinary bladder.
    E. liver.
    B. urethra.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. 11. Consuming a meal high in salt will

    A. drastically increase the osmolarity of the blood.
    B. activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism.
    C. cause hypotension
    D. decrease thirst
    E. result in a temporary increase in blood volume.
    E. result in a temporary increase in blood volume.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. 12. Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ____yields energy the quickest.

    A. fat
    B. glycogen
    C. glucose
    D. an amino acid
    E. protein
    C. glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. 13. The end products of aerobic respiration are

    A. carbon dioxide and water.
    B. pyruvic acid and carbon dioxide.
    C. NADH and FADH2
    D. oxygen and water.
    E. carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP)
    E. carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. 14. If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur?

    A. Permanent kidney injury
    B. Presence of protein in urine
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    D. Presence of blood in urine
    E. Damage to the glomeruli
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. 15. Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except

    A. amino acids
    B. proteins.
    C. creatinine.
    D. hydrogen ions.
    E. Urea.
    B. proteins.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. 16. During the absorptive state,

    A. skeletal muscle breaks down glycogen.
    B. adipocytes release fatty acids to the circulation.
    C. insulin levels are low.
    D. skeletal muscle fibers release glucose.
    E. The liver forms glycogen.
    E. The liver forms glycogen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. 17. Lipids

    A. are difficult to store since they are not water soluble.
    B. provide energy for cells with modest energy demands.
    C. are the primary nutrient metabolized in cells.
    D. deliver somewhat less energy than an equivalent mass of glucose.
    E. yield quick burst of energy.
    B. provide energy for cells with modest energy demands.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. 18. The left kidney lies ____ to the right kidney.

    e. superior
    • a. inferior
    • b. transverse
    • c. posterior
    • d. anterior
    • e. superior
  19. 19. ________ is/are an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys.

    A. Glomerulonephritis
    B. Kidney stones
    C. Floating kidney
    D. Pyelonephrosis
    E. Polycystic kidney disease
    A. Glomerulonephritis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. 20. Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system, except the

    A. kidney
    B. rectum.
    C. urinary bladder
    D. urethra.
    E. ureter.
    B. rectum.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. 21. The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by

    A. All of the answers are correct.
    B. regulating NaCl levels in the blood.
    C. releasing renin
    D. adjusting the volume of water lost in urine.
    E. releasing erythropoietin.
    A. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. 22. Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the

    A. muscles.
    B. tissues.
    C. veins.
    D. arteries.
    E. capillaries.
    E. capillaries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. 23. In the human body, cholesterol is important because it

    A. is a key constituent of bile.
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    C. is a lipid component of all cell membranes.
    D. helps waterproof the epidermis.
    E. is the precursor of several steroid hormones and vitamin D3.
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. 24. The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called

    A. anabolism.
    B. catabolism.
    C. glycolysis.
    D. oxidative phosphorylation.
    E. metabolism.
    E. metabolism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. 25. The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the

    A. nephron loop (loop of Henle).
    B. proximal convoluted tubule.
    C. minor calyx.
    D. distal convoluted tubule.
    E. collecting loop.
    A. nephron loop (loop of Henle).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. 26. All of the following are components of ECF, except

    A. cerebrospinal fluid.
    B. RBCs.
    C. aqueous humor.
    D. peritoneal fluid
    E. lymph.
    B. RBCs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. 27. During starvation

    A. carbohydrate utilization increases.
    B. there is a decline in circulating ketone bodies
    C. muscle proteins are used as an energy source.
    D. carbohydrate reserves maintained by metabolizing inorganic compounds.
    E. gluconeogenesis ceases.
    C. muscle proteins are used as an energy source.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. 28. The strategy of eating starch foods for several days before an athletic event is known as

    A. overeating
    B. glycolysis reaction.
    C. carbohydrate loading.
    D. carbohydrate craving.
    E. the Atkins diet.
    C. carbohydrate loading.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. 29. The kidneys not only remove waste products from the blood, they also assist in the regulation of

    A. blood pressure.
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    C. blood volume.
    D. blood ion levels.
    E. blood pH.
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. 30. Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by

    A. stimulating thirst.
    B. stimulating the kidneys to conserve sodium.
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    D. causing the release of ADH
    E. triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone.
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. 31. Hypoventilation leads to

    A. respiratory alkalosis.
    B. metabolic alkalosis.
    C. metabolic acidosis.
    D. respiratory acidosis.
    D. respiratory acidosis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. 32. The function of the citric acid cycle is to

    A. produce water
    B. produce carbon dioxide.
    C. transfer the acetyl group.
    D. remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes.
    E. hydrolyze glucose.
    D. remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. 33. Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within

    A. the interstitial space.
    B. lymph.
    C. the cerebrospinal fluid
    D. blood vessels.
    E. the cells of the body.
    E. the cells of the body.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. 34. The cavity of the kidney that receives the urine from the calyces is called the

    A. renal pelvis.
    B. renal medulla.
    C. renal cortex.
    D. renal sinus.
    E. renal papilla.
    A. renal pelvis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. 35. During glycolysis

    A. four molecules of ATP are produced.
    B. hydrogen atoms are removed from organic molecules.
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    D. two molecules of ATP are consumed.
    E. a molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. 36. The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the blood stream are

    A. coenzymes.
    B. HDLs
    C. VLDLs.
    D. chylomicrons.
    E. LDLs.
    D. chylomicrons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. 37. When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,

    A. the osmolality of the ECF falls.
    B. the e is an increase in the volume of the ICF.
    C. aldosterone is secreted.
    D. osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.
    E. both the ECF and the ICF become more dilute.
    D. osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. 38. A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing binding hydrogen ion is called a(n).

    A. compensation.
    B. alkali.
    C. acid.
    D. electrolyte.
    E. buffer.
    E. buffer.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. 39. Substances larger than _____ are normally not allowed pass through the filtration membrane.

    A. albumin
    B. amino acids
    C. sodium ions
    D. glucose
    E. urea
    A. albumin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. 40. The position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is stabilized by

    A. contact with adjacent visceral organs.
    B. supporting connective tissues.
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    D. the overlying peritoneum.
    E. the renal fascia.
    C. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. 41. The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the

    A. pyramid.
    B. ureter.
    C. calyx.
    D. hilum.
    E. pelvis.
    D. hilum.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. 42. Secretion of potassium into the urine is

    A. minimal because the human diet includes very little potassium
    B. increased by ADH.
    C. associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts.
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    E. an indication of dehydration.
    C. associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. 43. The essential fatty acids are

    A. linoleic acid and linolenic acid
    B. glycerol and pyruvic acid
    C. HDLs and LDLs
    D. cholesterol and glycerol
    A. linoleic acid and linolenic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. 44. About two-thirds of the body fluids is within cells and is termed ____fluid.

    A. intercellular
    B. extracellular
    C. intracellular
    D. interstitial
    C. intracellular
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. 45. Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?

    A. ADH
    B. epinephrine
    C. aldosterone
    D. BNP
    E. ANP
    A. ADH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. 46. Which of the following will stimulate thirst?

    A. angiotension II acting on the hypothalamus
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    C. drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx
    D. an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
    E. stimulation of osmorectors
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. 47. The urinary system does all of the following, except that it

    A. regulates blood volume.
    B. regulates plasma concentrations of electrolytes.
    C. eliminates organic waste products.
    D. excretes excess albumen molecules.
    E. contributes to stabilizing blood pH.
    D. excretes excess albumen molecules.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. 48. Oxygen is an important molecule in which of the following:

    A. ETS only
    B. citric acid cycle and ETS
    C. glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and ETS
    D. citric acid cycle only
    E. glycolysis only
    B. citric acid cycle and ETS
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. 49. All the following are true of the kidneys, except that they are

    A. held in place by the renal fascia.
    B. covered by peritoneum.
    C. located in position that is retroperitoneal.
    D. located partly within the pelvic cavity
    E. surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
    D. located partly within the pelvic cavity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. 50. Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?

    A. natriuretic peptides
    B. acetylcholine
    C. ADH
    D. aldosterone
    E. PTH
    A. natriuretic peptides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. 51. The renal veins drain into the

    A. inferior vena cava
    B. renal arteries.
    C. abdominal aorta.
    D. segmental arteries.
    E. peritubular capillaries.
    A. inferior vena cava
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. 52. When pure water is consumed,

    A. osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.
    B. a fluid shift occurs and the volume of the ICF decreases.
    C. the volume of the ICF decreases.
    D. the ECF becomes hypertonic to the ICF
    E. the volume of the ECF decreases.
    A. osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. 53. The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are

    A. sodium, potassium, and phosphate.
    B. sodium, hydrogen, chloride.
    C. sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
    D. sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate.
    E. sodium, potassium, and calcium.
    C. sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. 54. Reactions within ____ provides most of the energy needed by a typical cell.

    A. cytoplasm
    B. the endoplasmic reticulum
    C. the mitochondria
    D. nucleus
    E. the plasma membrane
    C. the mitochondria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. 55. Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons?

    A. produce secretions
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    C. store nutrients
    D. growth and repair
    E. structural maintenance
    B. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. 56. Cells must synthesize new organic compounds

    A. to produce secretions.
    B. to support growth.
    C. to perform structural maintenance or repairs.
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    E. to store nutrient reserves.
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. 57. The citric acid cycle

    A. forms acetyl-CoA from glucose-6-phosphate.
    B. contains enzymes called cytochromes.
    C. consumes two moles of carbon dioxide.
    D. begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid.
    E. directly produces most of the ATP from the catabolism of glucose.
    D. begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. 58. A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ____from his body.

    A. hydrogen ion
    B. sodium
    C. water
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    E. bicarbonate ion
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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