Immune System 3.25.13

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  1. First line defense
    intact skin mucosae prevent entry of microorganisms
  2. second line of defense
    inflammation and antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes and other cells, fever
  3. third line defense
    mounts attack against specific foreign substances

    takes longer than innate system
  4. Keratin
    • physical barrier to most microorganisms
    • resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes, and toxins
    • mucosae provide similar mechanical barriers
  5. Skin
    • acidity inhibits bacterial growth
    • sebum contains chemicals toxic to bacteria
  6. stomach
    • mucosae secrete concentrated HCL
    • protein-digesting enxymes denature proteins
  7. saliva and lacrimal fluids
    Contain lysozyme which digest bacterial cell walls
  8. mucus
    trap microorganisms
  9. Best way to prevent spread of disease
    wash your hands!!!
  10. Antibiotics
    mostly semi-synthetic molecules based upon naturally occurring antibacterial compounds
  11. Problems associated with resistance
    • failure to respond to standard treatments
    • increase risk of death
    • remain infectious longer
    • threatens to return to pre-antibiotic era
    • increase the cost of healthcare
    • success of major surgeries is compromised
  12. Phage
    a virus that attacks specific bacteria
  13. macrophages
    • chief phagocytic cells
    • wander throughout body in search of debris/ pathogens
  14. Fixed macrophages
    • Kupffer cells (liver)
    • Microglia (brain)
  15. Neutrophils
    • most abundant WBC
    • phagocytic when encountering infectious material
  16. Eosinophils
    weakly phagocytic against parasitic worms
  17. Natural Killer (NK) cells
    • small distinct group of large agranular lymphocytes
    • lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected cells
    • release perforins to kill target cell
    • enhance inflammatory response
  18. Inflammation
    • triggered whenever body tissue injured
    • prevents spread of damaging agents 
    • disposes of cell debris and pathogens
    • sets stage for repair
  19. signs of acute inflammation
    • redness 
    • heat 
    • swelling
    • pain
  20. Inflammatory response steps
    • 1. inflammatory chemicals released by injured tissue, phagocytes, lymphocytes, and mast cells
    • 2. small blood vessels dilate > hyperemia
    • 3. Increased capillary permeability
    • 4. Exudate seeps into tissue causing swelling (edema)
  21. Edema (Swelling)
    • dilutes harmful substances
    • brings in large quantities of oxygen and nutrients
    • allows entry of clotting proteins
  22. Leukocytosis
    neutrophils released from bone marrow in response to cellular damage
  23. Margination
    neutrophils cling to walls of capillaries in injured area
Card Set:
Immune System 3.25.13
2013-04-08 17:58:31
Bio 256 Exam

Exam 3
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