Virology

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Author:
aeldavies
ID:
210041
Filename:
Virology
Updated:
2013-03-28 21:38:13
Tags:
Pathology virology
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Description:
Medical microbiology intro to viruses
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  1. Definition
    Large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are extremely simple or complex that contain a protein coat (RNA/DNA) with no semi-permeable membrane, capable of growth/multiplication only in living cells that causes various important disease
  2. Classifying viruses
    • Nucliec acid (RNA/DNA)
    • Structure
    • Means of replication
  3. Virion structures
    • genome
    • Protein Capsid
    • Complex
    • "packaging"
  4. Protein capsid
    • Helix
    • Icosohedron "soccer ball"
    • Complex
  5. "Naked packaging"
    • Capsid protein is the outer layer
    • Environmentally stable
  6. Enveloped "packaging"
    • Surrounded by a membrane containing lipids
    • Environmently labile
  7. Viral Replication
    • Transmission
    • Recognition of target cell
    • Attach
    • Penetrate
    • Uncoat
    • Hi-Jack
    • Assemble
    • Lysis/release
  8. Laboratory Diagnosis
    • Specimen Transport
    • Detection
    • Culturing
  9. Specimen Transport
    • Buffered isotonic solution with some protein and antibiotics
    • Kept on ice or refrigerated
    • Do not freeze unless significant delay
    • Aspirated secretions best
    • Swabs if dacron, nylon or cotton. Do not use calcium alginate (toxic to viruses).
  10. Detection
    • Direct detection
    • Indirect detection
    • Culturing
  11. Direct detection
    • Direct antigen detection (ELISA, latex agg. and immunofluorescence staining)
    • Electron microscopy
    • Nucleic acid detection (probe or PCR)
  12. Indirect Antigen Detection
    same as direct antigen detection but using patient serum and prepared antigen material
  13. Common RNA viruses and Human RNA Viral Diseases
    • Enteroviruses
    • Rhinoviruses
    • Hepatitis C
    • Rotavirus
    • Yellow Fever
    • Dengue Fever
    • Rubella
    • Influenzae
    • Mumps
    • Measels
    • RSV
    • Rabies
    • Hantavirus
    • Retroviruses
  14. Enteroviruses
    • RNA virus
    • Fecal-oral transmission
    • Polio
    • Hepatitis A
    • Echo, Coxacki, etc. (viral meningitis)
  15. Rhinoviruses
    • RNA virus
    • Common cold
  16. Hepatitis C
    • RNA virus
    • No vaccine
    • transmitted via syringes and multiple sexual partners
    • "sleeper disease"
  17. Virus spread by misquito, RNA virus
    • Yellow Fever
    • Dengue Fever
  18. Rotavirus
    • RNA virus
    • Wheel-like shape on EM
    • Gastroenteritis in young children
    • NOT the stomach flu
  19. Rubella
    • RNA virus
    • "German measels"
    • Fetal infection = birth defects
    • Vaccine
  20. Influenza
    • RNA respiratory virus
    • fever, myalgias and cough
    • pandemics worldwide
    • amantadine and rimantadine
  21. Mumps
    • RNA virus
    • Vaccine
  22. Measles
    • RNA virus
    • "Red Measles"
    • Caused by Rubeola virus
    • Vaccine
  23. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
    • Viral pneumonia in young children
    • RNA virus
  24. Rabies
    • RNA virus
    • Bullet shaped
    • Bats and racoons trasmit
  25. Hantavirus
    • RNA virus
    • Inhaled aerosols (infected rodent feces/urine)
    • "Sin Nombre"
    • Clean up like any biohazard material
  26. Retroviruses
    • RNA virus
    • Oncoviruses (tumor causing)
    • HIVĀ 
    • Prevention
    • No cure
    • No vaccine
  27. Common DNA viruses and human DNA viral diseases
    • Papillomavirus
    • Herpes Group: HSV, VZV, CMV, EBV
    • Pox viruses
    • Hepatits B
    • Ebola
  28. Papillomavirus
    • DNA virus
    • Warts (non-cancer forming)
    • "HPV" (causes cancer and warts)
    • STD
    • Causes cervical cancer
  29. Herpes Simplex Type 1
    • DNA virus
    • Cold sore
    • 15% genital herpes
    • cancer causing
  30. Herpes Simplex Type 2
    • DNA virus
    • Genital herpes
    • cancer causing
  31. Varicella
    • DNA virus
    • herpes group
    • "chickenpox"
    • "shingles"
    • Vaccine available
    • cancer causing
  32. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • DNA virus
    • Herpes group
    • "mono"-like
    • severe in immuno-compromised patients
    • cancer causing
  33. Epstein-Barr Virus
    • DNA virus
    • herpes group
    • infectious mononucleosis
    • strongest oncogenic (cancer causing) agent
  34. Pox Viruses
    • DNA virus
    • Small pox (Variola virus)
    • limited to humans and rare monkeys
    • Feared for biological warfare
  35. Hepatitis B
    • DNA virus
    • "Serum Hepatitis" (spread by blood/sex)
    • Vaccine
    • Can cause cancer
  36. Ebola
    • DNA virus
    • "emerging pathogen"

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