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2013-03-28 19:04:50

Biology grade 11 Final Exam
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  1. 7 Characteristics of Living Organisms
    1)  Living things reproduce 

    2)  Living things obtain and use materials and energy (metabolism) 

    3)  Living things are based on a universal genetic code

    4)  Living things grow and develop 

    5)  Living things respond to the environment 

    6)  Living things maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis)

    • 7)  Living things are made up of units called cells.
    •     -The cell is the basic organizational unit of life
  2. Two main divisions of biology
    Botany - study of life

    Zoology - study of animals
  3. Unicellular organisms
    Undergo growth and development by increasing in cell size
  4. How can organisms adapt to their environment
    • Long or short term adaptation
    • include:
    •     - structure
    •     - function 
    •     - Behaviour 
    • ie 
    •  daily adaption to weather wearing boots/ sandals
  5. What does wellness refer to? 
    Spheres of wellness?
    Proper health and care of our bodies 

    • include:
    •      - Physical
    •      - Physiological 
    •      - Spiritual 
    •      - Social health
  6. Wellness
    • Wellness isn't only about yourself, you should always try to increase wellness locally and globally.
    • Share the wellness as we all share this planet
  7. Dimensions of wellness
    • Physical 
    • social 
    • psychological 
    • spiritual

    They are all interlocked therefore when one is effected they are all effected
  8. Main categories of physical wellness
    • Eating properly - Limiting sugar, salt, fat. 
    •                       - Increasing variation of fruit            .               and vegetables in diet 
    • Physical Exercise - taking taking the stairs   .       .               instead of elevator...

    Sleeping - Getting enough sleep for you recommended average 8hr
  9. Benefits of sleep
    • -   Allows our body to rest and recover from intellectual, physiological, and emotional stress 
    • -   Sleep (dreams) allow our brain to organize facts, memories etc... (that is why its important to get good night sleep after studying and before a test) 
    • -   Gives a chance to our body to heal             i.e. muscles 
    • -   Increases our energy
  10. Myths about sleep
    • Myth 
    •     Dreams only last couple of minutes  

    • Fact 
    •     Dreams last as long as an hour 
    • Myth 







    • Fact 
  11. REM
    • Rapid eye movement
    • -
    • -
  12. Psychotic
    • Feel tired all the time 
    • stressed 
    • not alert 
    • moody
  13. Insumnia
    having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep

    - drugs can help but not good idea since body can become immune to the drug and ....
  14. Situational
    related to anxiety or excitement
  15. Cataplexy
    sudden loss of muscle tone and strength
  16. sleep apnea
    temporary pause of breathing

    awakened when blood levels of CO2 stimulate breathing
  17. Big business
    • - Too dependent on corn 
    • - Sanitation is lower then in smaller farms
    • - E. Coli rates increase 
    •       cows are fed corn instead of grass 
    •       animals stand in their own manure 
    • -The use of hormones in animals and pesticides + herbicides on corps
  18. ATP vs ADP
    • ADP
    • adenosine diphosphate 
    • low energy

    • ATP
    • adenosire trphosphate
    •  high energy
  19. Cause for higher blood pressure in elderly
    Decrease in elesticity in cells due to the breakage of calogine and elastin in cell membrane and in musscle tissue and as you get older they break easier
  20. Cardiopulmonary by-pass technique
    which temperarly takes over the heart and lungs remaintaining the circulation of the blood flow and oxegen contact in the body
  21. sinus bradyeacardia
    rate is under 60bpm
  22. Asystolic
    Conditioin at which the hart stops
  23. Negitive feedback mechanisamis
    An important mechanisam used to bring things back to within acceptable rangesconsites of a sensor, coordinating center, effector
  24. ex of negitive feedback mechanisamcause:
    • cause: change of enviourment disturbince of the homeostasis
    • change: feeling cold (sensor) 
    • receptor: nerve cellscontrol center: brain (hypothamus) tells your body 
    • effector: shiver - conserve heat to your core and protect your main organs.                          -vasle constric- little vains around your muscles
    • change: body temp begins to warm up
    • to blood vessal squizing 
    • norma condition
  25. Waist management
    • The bodies ability to rid itself of harmful wastes
    •  Essential for the maintanace of homeostatis
  26. Breathing rate for new born
  27. breathing rate for infant
  28. breathing rate for pre school children
  29. breathing rates for adults
  30. average blood pressure for teens
    112/64 mmHg


    90-119 /60-70
  31. mineral
    an inorganic substance that serves as a building material or takes part in a chemical reaction
  32. most of the minerals in our body are found in
    • - Mostly in the skeleton 
    • - 4% of total body weight
  33. classification of a mineral
    anything on the periodic table with our carbon in it
  34. Ex of minerals
    • calcium 
    • iron 
    • potassium
    • zinc
    • iodine
  35. Vitamin
    Organic nutrients to maintain growth and development
  36. two categories of vitamins
    • Fat soluble 
    • water soluble
  37. Fat soluble vitamins
    • vitamins desolve in fat and are stored in body too much minerals is toxic!
    • Ex
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  38. water soluble vitamins
    Vitamins dissolvve in water so they can be absorbed by the bodyBody can't store them because the vitamins disolve in the water Any vitamins your body doesn't use are lost as they pass throught your system

    • i.e.
    •  C
    • B
  39. photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6O2 ---> C6H1206 +  6H20

    • - sunlight energy (chloroplast) 
    • -occurs in the cytoplasm
  40. Cellular respiration
    6H2O + C6H12O6  ---> 6C02 + 6H2O

    • - Occurs in the mitochondria 
    • -form of ATP ADP
  41. Types of Passive Transport
    cell doesn't use energy

    • - Diffusion 
    • - Facilitated diffusion
    • - Osmosis
  42. Types of Active Transport
    Cell does not use energy 

    • - Protein pumps
    • - Endocytosis
    • - Exocytosis
  43. Passive Transport
    • Cell uses no energy
    • molecules move randomly 
    • molecules spread from high to low concentration
  44. Facilitative diffusion
    Diffusion with the help of transport protein
  45. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane 

    -water moves from high to low
  46. Active transport
    • Cell uses energy 
    • actively moves molecules to where they are needed 
    • Low --> High
  47. Three types of active transport
    • Protein pump
    • Endocytosis
    • Exocytosis
  48. Protein pump
    Transports proteins that requires energy to do work 

    • EX 
    • sodium/ potassium pumps are important in nerve responses

  49. Endocytosis
    • Taking bulky material into a cell 
    • Uses energy
    • Cell membrane in-folds around food particle
    • Cell eating
    • Forms food vacuole and digests food
    • This is how white blood cells eat bacteria

  50. Exocytosis
    Forces materials out of cell in bulk 

    membrane surrounding the membrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membrane 

    cell changes shape requires energy 

    ex hormones or wastes released from cell

  51. Plasma Membrane
    Lipid Bilayer = 2 sheets of lipids (phospholipids) 

    - Embedded with proteins, strengthened with cholesterol
  52. Where are Lipid bilayer found
    - found around the cell, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and chloroplast
  53. Effects of osmosis on life
    Water is so small in and there is so much of it that the cell can't control its movement through the cell membrane
  54. Hypotonic solution
    • - Water moves into the cell 
    • - Cell swells and bursts open or lyses (cytolysis) 

  55. Hypertonic Solution
    • - Water moved from inside the cell into the solution 
    • - Cell shrinks / crenation occurs (plasmolysis) 

  56. Isotonic Solution
    • - Water moves equally in and out of the cell 
    • - cell remains the same size