Intro to OMT Midterm

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mjworm
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210085
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Intro to OMT Midterm
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2013-03-28 21:59:45
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midterm
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  1. Lensmeter or Lensometer(R)
  2. Ophthalmometer or Keratometer (R)
  3. projector
  4. Refractor or Phoropter (R)
  5. Slit Lamp or Biomicroscope
    • 1-Transilluminator
    • 2-Welch Allyn Retinoscope
    • 3-Copeland Retinoscope
  6. Aseptic Technique (4 steps)
    • 1-Proper sterilization
    • 2-disinfection of the skin around site of operation
    • 3-disinfect surgeons and assistants hands
    • 4-sterile equipment and meds
  7. Orthoptist
    an eye care professional licensed to assist ophthalmologists in measuring eye deviations and managing patients undergoing treatment
  8. Cultures
    • grown in a lab
    • common types=
    • 1-blood agar(5% sheep blood) grows aerobic organisms
    • 2-chocolate agar(10%) grows aerobic
    • 3-thioglycolate-grows anaerobic organisms
    • 4-Sabouraud- dextrose agar=grows yeast and fungi
    • 5-freezing 4degrees C grows viruses and Chlamydia
  9. Gram Stain
    used to help identify organisms causing infections*bacteria
  10. Shapes of Bacteria (3)
    • cocci-round
    • bacilli-rod-like
    • spirochetes-spiral
  11. Microbiology
    • the study of microscopic, unicellular, and multicellular organism
    • ex)bacteria, viruses, fungi, paracite
  12. Smears
    • obtained from infected sites 
    • inspected immediately
  13. Chlamydia
    • intracellular parasite
    • most widespread STD in the USA and is easily transmitted to partners
    • #2 worldwide cause of blindness 
    • caused by lack of clean water
  14. Stains
    • used to identify bacteria and fungi
    • --gram positive=stain dark blue/purple
    • --gram negative=stain red/pink
  15. commonly used disinfecting products (4)
    • povidone-iodine
    • tincture of iodine
    • alcohol 
    • chloronexidine
    • **do not make sterile (just less populated with bacteria)
  16. Allied Health
    healthcare proffessionals assisting, facilitating and complementing physicians
  17. Viruses
    • can be either RNA or DNA
    • obligate intracellular parasites that can penetrate host cells 
    • once inside host cell, it injects their RNA or DNA into the host's cell replication system to produce more
  18. Cause of worldwide blindness(3)
    • 1-cataracts
    • 2-tracoma which is from chlamydia
    • 2-glaucoma
  19. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
    • causes meningitis
    • causes gohorreha
  20. Asepsis
    • condition of absence of all types of microorganisms
    • nothing is living ex) operation room
  21. Ophthalmologist
    medical eye physician licensed to provide ALL aspects of eye care including surgery
  22. Preserving Sterility(Rules)
    • use the NO touch rule
    • when putting in eye drops the bottle tip must be held at least 1/2 in from the eye
  23. Ocularist
    an eye care professional trained to design and fit artificial eyes
  24. Optometrist
    a non-medical doctor licensed to provide SOME aspects of eye care NO surgery
  25. Optician
    an eye care professional licensed to provide all services related to ordering, preparing, dispensing and fitting eye glasses and contacts
  26. Sepsis
    an infection leading to the presence of potentially all types of organisms
  27. Sterile
    • refers to medical items that have gone through a process of eliminating all microorganisms
    • going through the process of creating Asepsis
    • fire kills everything
    • about an hour before it becomes unsterile
  28. Antisepsis
    • condition of reduction of all types of organisms
    • reduced life
    • ex)antibacterial soap
  29. CDC
    • Center for Disease Control
    • located in Atlanta, Georgia
  30. Types of Viruses (3)
    • 1-Adenovirus-can inhibit URT, cornea, conjunctiva, and lymph
    • 2-Herpes Complex- cause dendritic and geographical ulcers on the cornea
    • 3-Varicella-Zoster-causes chicken pox in childre, and can cause shingles in adults painful and take one side of the head and face
  31. Hypopyon
    if white blood cells collect in the eye, pools; indicates infection
  32. Protozoa
    • Acanthamoeba is one that can cause ocular infection
    • Microsporidia- microscopic organisms found in people who have HIV or abuse steroids
  33. Fungi
    Fungi eye infections are NOT very common but very harmful
  34. FACT: in the eye the alkaline burn is worse than an acid burn WHY??
    Acids form a parcipitate that limits action and alkaline there is no parcipitate so it goes deeper in the eye
  35. Viruses (3types)
    • 1-Herpes Simplex
    • 2-Herpes Zoster
    • 3-Adenovirus (cold)
  36. Pyogenic Cocci
    pus producing

    • Staphylococcus
    • streptococcus
    • neissera
  37. Pseudomonas Aeruginsa
    caused by corneal ulcers from wearing contacts too much can destroy an eye in 48hrs
  38. Fungi (3)
    • 1-Candida
    • 2-Fusarium
    • 3-Aspergillus
  39. Hyphema
    if blood cells (red) collect/pool in the eye; indicates broken blood vessels
  40. Bacteria (3 types)
    • cocci--staphlococcus&streptococcus
    • bacilli--pseudomonas
    • spirochetes--treponema (syphilis)
  41. Minimum Angle of Resolution (MAR)
    • 1' of information
    • 1' of arc 20/20 indicates 100% visual function
  42. Levels of OMT 
    --Entry
    --Intermediate
    --Advanced
    • COA(certified ophthalmic assistant)
    • COT(certified ophthalmic technician)
    • COMT(certified ophthalmic medical technician)
  43. How long can the retina be without blood?
    90 minutes
  44. MAR of 30"
    20/20 vision
  45. Arc of 1'
    20/20 vision
  46. Arc of 5'
    BIG E
  47. optotypes
    using shapes and characters instead of letters for children and illiterates
  48. If patient can't see 20/400.... (8steps)
    • 1-walk patient 1/2 way to the mirror 10ft 10/400 or 20/800
    • 2-walk patient 5ft from mirrow 5/400 or 20/1600
    • 3-use low vision chart or ETDRS
    • 4-count fingers(wrote as CF@__ft)
    • 5-wave hand
    • 6-light perception with projection (LPcP)
    • 7-light perception only(LPO)
    • 8-No light perception (NLP)
  49. Scotopic
    night vision; dark are
  50. Mesopic
    low day vision; dim
  51. photopic
    day vision; well lite area
  52. contrast visual acuity
    measures visual function which maybe less than indicated by Snellen acuity; tests catarcts; more accurate visual acuity measures only high contract
  53. myctalopia
    night blindness; problems with rods
  54. glare tests
    • used to test for catarcts; use a BAT (brightness acuity tester) 
    • four tests are taken--
    • 1-BAT off 2-BAT at low 3-BAT at medium 4-BAT high
    • *opacities in ocular medium (cornea and lens) cause increase of glare
  55. PAM (Potential Acuity Meter)
    • used a micro-snellen chart that can be projected on the retina 
    • examiner does this by directing it through the pupil
    • if use of PAM before cataracts surgery is not needed
    • wrote like BCVA--20/40
    • PAM--20/25
  56. Pupil
    compare and contrast
    sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
    • Sympathetic---vs-----parasympathetic
    • fight or flight---------rest and digest
    • constrict---------------dialate
    • pupil dialator mus.---pupil sphincter mus.
  57. Sphincter Muscles (3)
    • orbicularis
    • pupil sphincter
    • ciliary muscle
  58. Pupil Size variations (2)
    • Age--smaller in infants and elderly
    • ------larger in children
    • Refractive Error---larger in myopes
  59. Pseudostrabismus
    a false impression of a deviation due to prominent epicanthanal folds; no deviation can be detected
  60. Epicanthanal
    wide nasal bridge above the canthus
  61. Deviations
    • eso(E) turned nasally, in
    • exo(X) turned temporally, out
    • hyper(H) turned up
    • hypo(h) turned down
  62. Quantification by Krimsky Method
    • use a prism
    • corneal light reflex and prism
    • Hirschberg& prism=Krimsky
    • quantification by prism
  63. Amblyopic
    • unless corrected by 6-8 yrs it will stay that way could cause a useless eye
    • can fix by patching the "normal" eye
  64. Hirschberg Estimation
    estimating now serve the deviation
  65. Range of Movement(estimation)
    • +1 minimal
    • +2 moderate
    • +3 severe
    • +4 total
  66. Annulus of Zinn
    • where muscles enter the eye
    • origin of muscle
  67. spiral of Tillaux
    • muscles are not in a circle 
    • the 4 rectus muscles comprise this
    • insertion of muscles
  68. Trochlea
    found in corner of the eye medially
  69. 6 muscles of the eye
    • 1-Lateral Rectus
    • 2-Medial Rectus
    • 3-Superior Rectus
    • 4-Inferior Rectus
    • 5-Superior Oblique
    • 6-Inferior Oblique
  70. Synkinetic Reflex
    • any task near after looking at the distance
    • 3things have to happen
    • 1-convergence
    • 2-accommodation
    • 3-miosis
  71. Hippus
    Rhythmic contraction and dialation of pupil

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