1. Asexual reproduction does not involve male or female gametes, but is rather a division of simple cell organisms
2. Sexual Reproduction involves the mating of the male and the female through copulation
a fertilized egg
the act of giving birth
List 4 types of breeder selection:
Genetics Select the best characteristic for that breed They are looking for size, depth of bone, movement of animal in order to show that breed at the livestock show.
Disease Screening – Brucellosis vaccine or testing
Soundness – don’t want to breed an immune compromised animal or genetically flawed animal.
2 Methods of breeding:
Natural Cover – One bull per thirty cows. Mostly beef breeds.
Artificial Insemination – One ejaculate may be used to inseminate hundreds of cows
Which industry uses AI?
Dairy but is being used more commonly in beef breeds
Crossbreeding dairy with a beef cow gives
more excellent milking ability for calves
fewer dystocia problems.
The scrotum is
the saclike portion of the male reproductive system the remains outside of the body, and contains the testicles and the epididymis.
The scrotum is made up of what three types of tissues:
Tunica dartos - the muscle tissue that is responsible for raising and lowering the testicles in response to temperature differences.
Tunica vaginalis - the tissue that forms the pocket around the testicles once they have descended from the abdominal cavity.
If one or both of the testicles do not descend and are held within the body cavity
Cryptorchidism is commonly seen in what animals?
Seen in all species, more frequent in dogs
thoroughbreds – called ridglings
not common for cattle
List 3 common names associated with animals that have cryptorchidism:
Cryptorchids should not be used for breeding purposes because
it is a highly inheritable and undesirable trait
The testicles produce
sperm and testosterone
Sperm cells are produced by the
Testosterone is produced by
interstitial cells called Leydig Cells
Testosterone is the hormone responsible for producing sperm.
Term for a fully grown steer
Why do you castrate a bull and make it a steer?
To create a meat producing animal instead of a reproductive animal.
When is it no loner feasible to castrate a bull?
When the bull is over 600 lbs because they start putting on bull characteristics
The epididymis is the long coiled tube that is connected to __________. __________ reside inside the tube for maturation and storage. These cells do not move from the tube until __________. Cells that do not leave the tube at that time are then _________________.
each of the testicles
ejaculation during copulation
reabsorbed by the body
The urethra is the
tube that carries urine from the bladder
Accessory glands include the
the prostate gland, and
The seminal vesicles open out into the urethra, and produce
a fluid that both transports and protects the sperm
The prostate gland is located near the urethra and bladder. It produces
a fluid that is also mixed with the seminal fluid
Cowper’s glands produce a fluid that travels down the urethra ahead of the seminal fluid. This fluid helps to
clean and neutralize the urethra, protecting the sperm as it travels
The urethra within the penis is surrounded by a spongy type tissue called ________ that fills with blood when the male is aroused; causing the erection that is necessary for copulation
The sigmoid flexure is found in what animals? Which animals is it not present?
bulls, rams and boars
Horses and other mammals
List 3 instruments used in Artificial Insemination:
Semen collection is routinely done in what animals? What animal is it questionable?
cows, sheep, goats, dogs
horses it depends on the registry – thoroughbred is strictly live cover
Semen should be evaluated in what 2 ways:
Color – should be pale white almost grey
Volume – important – depends on how many times you can split 8-10 ccs normal
Consistency – Should be opaque – Clear = seminal fluid – no sperm)
Motility – should be swimming in a straight line
Morphology – Should look like a balloon. 90% should be normal
Concentration – Should cover the field on 40 power magnification – no blank spaces
Why evaluate semen?
To find out the probability of conception.
Estrus or heat is the
period of time that the female is receptive to the male for breeding
The estrus/puberty for a female mammal begins
Cow Estrus cycle
Cow Length of estrus
18 - 20 hrs
10-15 hours after estrus
the release of the egg from the ovary
What happens to an egg if not penetrated by sperm?
It will be expelled or reabsorbed by the body.
285 days/9 months
100 - 102 F
Cow dental formula
2 (I 0/3, C 0/1, P 3/3 M 3/3)
Less than 2 secs
Altered male bovine
Non-bred female bovine
Mature male goat
Mature female goat
Altered male goat
Mature male sheep
Mature female sheep
Altered male sheep
Stage 1 of partition in cattle is
contractions begin the process of birth
Stage 2 of partition in cattle is
The first water bag breaks.
second water bag (contains the fetus) breaks, the fetus will begin to emerge.
Normal presentation of the fetus begins with the forelimbs, nose, head, shoulders, middle, hips, rear legs, and the eventually the feet.
30 mins - 4 hrs
Stage 3 of partition in cattle is
afterbirth is expelled from the uterus
List 5 instances when partition assistance is warranted:
Dystocia – difficult birth.
First calf heifers.
Disproportionate bull/cow size ratio - Calf mimics the size of the bull
Caesarean section – option financial consideration for ranchers
List 3 instruments used in partition extraction
Hercules fetal extractor
List 2 instruments used to extract a dead calf
4 causes for reproductive failures
Crytorchidism (in males)
Animals that commonly see problems with uterine prolapse.
Cattle, sheep, goats, once in a dog.
List 5 Clostridial diseases:
List 2 infectious diseases that cause sudden death in cattle
List 6 bacterial diseases known to infect cattle
List 6 Viral diseases known to infect cattle
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
Bovine Virus Diarrhea
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Rota and Corona Virus
What product is effective for treating liver flukes?
Ivomec Plus - Clorsulon
List 3 Surgical Procedures that are required to be performed by a veterinary:
Uterine Prolapse (put uterus back and suture).
Reason for the veterinary is because it requires incision and suturing
Why Dehorn cattle?
Protection of other cattle and humans
Improves financial aspect
Cosmetic dehorning for cattle used for showing.
What are the 2 types of castration?
Open & Closed
Name an instrument used in open castration
Newberry Castrating Knife - used to open the scrotal sac. Testicles are not removed with this instrument.
Generally use hands to pull the testicles until they break.
Name 2 instruments used in closed castration:
Band Elastrator - green band placed close to the body.
Burdizzo Emasculator - used to crush the cords
List 6 instruments/items used to dehorn cattle:
Barnes dehorner (Scoop dehorner)
Instrument that you would probably use if you wanted to permanently remove the horns of cattle?
Barnes dehorner/Scoop dehorner
Antibody delivered directly into the body for short term protection
Origin of sheep
4 domestic sheep that originated in U.S.
Spanish- feral goats brought over by Spanish in the 1500s
Targhee is a cross between what 3 breeds?
What sheep originated in Spain and came to the U.S in the late 1800s
What goat originated in the French Alps and is popular in TX?
Which goat dates back to the time of Moses 1500 B.C.
Which goat originated in Africa and is the most popular meat goat in TX
Which goats originated in Switzerland?
What is the oldest dairy goat breed?
Which sheep originated in England (1767) and came to the U.S (George Washington Breed Association) in 1888
Which sheep originated in England in the 13th century?
Which sheep originated in England and came to the U.S. (Oregon) in 1860
Which sheep is the largest of all sheep breeds with fine wool?
List 2 sheep that originate from England and came to the U.S. in the 1800s
Which goat is suited to hot weather conditions?
List 2 sheep with black face and legs
Which goats originated in Africa?
Bacterial infections common in sheep
Common Viral infection in Sheep that is zoonotic
Bacterial infection common in sheep caused by parasites
Disease found in sheep and goats that is caused by a deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E.
White Muscle Disease
Disease of sheep and goats as a result of consuming large quantities of carbohydrates
Lactic Acidosis/Ruminal lactic acidosis, often referred to as grain overload
Acute poisoning resulting from accidentally providing excess amounts of copper in mineral mixes or incorrectly balanced grain rations.
Affects what animal
2 types of sheep farming
Range sheep farming popular in what states
Western US, CO, TX
Farm flock sheep farming popular in what states?
Indiana, OH, IL
2 products for sheep
Lamb 60% of income
Wool 40% of income
____ eats weeds; _____ eats grass
Best sheep for range conditions?
Rambouillet - good foragers and hearty
Reproduction season for sheep
End of August - 1st of Jan
Gestation for sheep
Instruments used in Sheep Castration
All-in-one/3 in one
Hausman standard emasculator
#1 producer of sheep in the country
How to manage and protect your goat herd:
tub of disinfectant (freshen daily) and a brush for scrubbing footwear or provide plastic over-boots for visitors.
Infectious disease of sheep and goats caused by prion
Scrapie similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
Brucellosis is found in what animals
Brucella abortus is found in cattle; and occasionally sheep, goats, and dogs.
B. melitensis is the most important cause of brucellosis in sheep and goats.
Anthrax affects what animals?
Goats, sheep, cattle and horses are susceptible
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) affects what animals?
cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats
Sore Mouth (Contagious Ecthyma, Orf) affects what animals?
sheep and goats
Pinkeye affects what animals
Cattle, sheep & goats
Viral diseases of cattle, sheep, goats
Foot and Mouth Disease
Bacterial diseases that affect cattle, sheep and goats?
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (cows) Scrapie (Sheep and Goats)
Ringworm (zoonotic) affects what animals?
Which animal is resistant to anti-parasite treatments?
Instruments used when assisting in lambing?
Instrument used to prevent uterine prolapse?
Ewe plastic pessary
Device used to be able to tell which ewe was bred to which ram.