Food Animal Test 2

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Marytaylor
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210087
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Food Animal Test 2
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2013-05-07 19:11:51
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Vet Tech
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Food animal test 2
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  1. Define reproduction
    • process through which organisms multiply or
    • produce offspring
  2. What are the 2 reproductive processes:
    • 1. Asexual reproduction does not involve male or female gametes, but is rather a division of simple cell organisms
    • 2. Sexual Reproduction involves the mating of the male and the female through copulation
  3. Define embryo
    a fertilized egg
  4. Define parturition
    the act of giving birth
  5. List 4 types of breeder selection:
    • Genetics Select the best characteristic for that breed They are looking for size, depth of bone, movement of animal in order to show that breed at the livestock show.
    • Productivity 
    • Disease Screening – Brucellosis vaccine or testing
    • Soundness – don’t want to breed an immune compromised animal or genetically flawed animal.
  6. 2 Methods of breeding:
    • Natural Cover – One bull per thirty cows. Mostly beef breeds.
    • Artificial Insemination – One ejaculate may be used to inseminate hundreds of cows
  7. Which industry uses AI?
    Dairy but is being used more commonly in beef breeds
  8. Crossbreeding dairy with a beef cow gives
    • more excellent milking ability for calves
    • fewer dystocia problems.
  9. The scrotum is
    the saclike portion of the male reproductive system the remains outside of the body, and contains the testicles and the epididymis.
  10. The scrotum is made up of what three types of tissues:
    • skin
    • Tunica dartos - the muscle tissue that is responsible for raising and lowering the testicles in response to temperature differences.
    • Tunica vaginalis - the tissue that forms the pocket around the testicles once they have descended from the abdominal cavity.
  11. Define Cryptorchidism
    If one or both of the testicles do not descend and are held within the body cavity
  12. Cryptorchidism is commonly seen in what animals?
    • Seen in all species, more frequent in dogs
    • thoroughbreds – called ridglings
    • not common for cattle
  13. List 3 common names associated with animals that have cryptorchidism:
    • a ridgeling
    • ridgel, or
    • cryptorchid
  14. Cryptorchids should not be used for breeding purposes because
    it is a highly inheritable and undesirable trait
  15. The testicles produce
    sperm and testosterone
  16. Sperm cells are produced by the
    seminiferous tubules
  17. Testosterone is produced by
    • interstitial cells called Leydig Cells
    • Testosterone is the hormone responsible for producing sperm.
  18. Term for a fully grown steer
    Oxen
  19. Why do you castrate a bull and make it a steer?
    To —create a meat producing animal instead of a reproductive animal.
  20. When is it no loner feasible to castrate a bull?
    When the bull is over 600 lbs because they start putting on bull characteristics
  21. The epididymis is the long coiled tube that is connected to __________. __________ reside inside the tube for maturation and storage. These cells do not move from the tube until __________. Cells that do not leave the tube at that time are then _________________.
    • each of the testicles 
    • Sperm cells 
    • ejaculation during copulation 
    • reabsorbed by the body
  22. The urethra is the
    tube that carries urine from the bladder
  23. Accessory glands include the
    • seminal vesicles
    • the prostate gland, and
    • Cowper’s glands.
  24. The seminal vesicles open out into the urethra, and produce
    a fluid that both transports and protects the sperm
  25. The prostate gland is located near the urethra and bladder. It produces
    a fluid that is also mixed with the seminal fluid
  26. Cowper’s glands produce a fluid that travels down the urethra ahead of the seminal fluid. This fluid helps to
    clean and neutralize the urethra, protecting the sperm as it travels
  27. The urethra within the penis is surrounded by a spongy type tissue called ________ that fills with blood when the male is aroused; causing the erection that is necessary for copulation
    cavernosum
  28. The sigmoid flexure is found in what animals? Which animals is it not present?
    • bulls, rams and boars
    • Horses and other mammals
  29. List 3 instruments used in Artificial Insemination:
    • artificial vagina
    • electroejaculator
    • electro stimulator
  30. Semen collection is routinely done in what animals? What animal is it questionable?
    • cows, sheep, goats, dogs
    • horses it depends on the registry – thoroughbred is strictly live cover
  31. Semen should be evaluated in what 2 ways:
    • Macroscopic
    • Color – should be pale white almost grey
    • Volume – important – depends on how many times you can split 8-10 ccs normal
    • Consistency – Should be opaque – Clear = seminal fluid – no sperm)

    • Microscopically
    • Motility – should be swimming in a straight line
    • Morphology – Should look like a balloon. 90% should be normal
    • Concentration – Should cover the field on 40 power magnification – no blank spaces
  32. Why evaluate semen?
    To find out the probability of conception.
  33. Estrus or heat is the
    period of time that the female is receptive to the male for breeding
  34. The estrus/puberty for a female mammal begins
    4-24 months
  35. Cow Estrus cycle
    21 days
  36. Cow Length of estrus
    18 - 20 hrs
  37. Cow Ovulation
    10-15 hours after estrus
  38. Define ovulation
    the release of the egg from the ovary
  39. What happens to an egg if not penetrated by sperm?
    It will be expelled or reabsorbed by the body.
  40. Cow Gestation
    285 days/9 months
  41. Cow pulse
    40-80 bpm
  42. Cow respiration
    10-30 rpm
  43. Cow temperature
    100 - 102 F
  44. Cow WBC
    4-12 thousand
  45. Cow RBC
    5-8 million
  46. Cow PCV
    26-42%
  47. Cow dental formula
    2 (I 0/3, C 0/1, P 3/3 M 3/3)
  48. Cow CRT
    Less than 2 secs
  49. Cow MM
    pink
  50. Male bovine
    Bull
  51. Female bovine
    Cow
  52. Young bovine
    calf
  53. Altered male bovine
    Steer
  54. Non-bred female bovine
    Heifer
  55. Mature male goat
    Buck
  56. Mature female goat
    Doe
  57. Newborn goat
    Kid
  58. Altered male goat
    Wether
  59. Mature male sheep
    Ram
  60. Mature female sheep
    Ewe
  61. Newborn sheep
    Lamb
  62. Altered male sheep
    Wether
  63. Bovine partition
    calving
  64. Stage 1 of partition in cattle is
    Time:
    • contractions begin the process of birth
    • 2-6 hrs
  65. Stage 2 of partition in cattle is
    Time:
    • The first water bag breaks.
    • second water bag (contains the fetus) breaks, the fetus will begin to emerge.
    • Normal presentation of the fetus begins with the forelimbs, nose, head, shoulders, middle, hips, rear legs, and the eventually the feet.
    • 30 mins - 4 hrs
  66. Stage 3 of partition in cattle is
    Time:
    • afterbirth is expelled from the uterus
    • 8-12 hrs
  67. List 5 instances when partition assistance is warranted:
    • Dystocia – difficult birth. 
    • First calf heifers.
    • Disproportionate bull/cow size ratio - Calf mimics the size of the bull
    • Brucellosis status
    • Caesarean section – option financial consideration for ranchers
  68. List 3 instruments used in partition extraction
    • Obstetrical forceps
    • Obstetrical chains
    • Hercules fetal extractor
  69. List 2 instruments used to extract a dead calf
    • Gigli wire
    • Obstetrical hook
  70. 4 causes for reproductive failures
    • Uterine infections
    • Cysts
    • Crytorchidism (in males)
    • Uterine Prolapse
  71. Animals that commonly see problems with uterine prolapse.
    Cattle, sheep, goats, once in a dog.
  72. List 5 Clostridial diseases:
    • Blackleg
    • Malignant Edema
    • Black's Disease,
    • Enterotoxemia and
    • Redwater
  73. List 2 infectious diseases that cause sudden death in cattle
    • Clostridial disease
    • Anthrax
  74. List 6 bacterial diseases known to infect cattle
    • Clostridial Disease
    • Pasteurella
    • Haemophilus sommus
    • Leptospirosis
    • Coliform (E-coli)
    • Pinkeye
  75. List 6 Viral diseases known to infect cattle
    • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
    • Parainfluenza-3
    • Bovine Virus Diarrhea
    • Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
    • Campylobacter
    • Rota and Corona Virus
  76. What product is effective for treating liver flukes?
    Ivomec Plus - Clorsulon
  77. List 3 Surgical Procedures that are required to be performed by a veterinary:
    • Cosmetic Dehorning
    • C-section
    • Uterine Prolapse (put uterus back and suture).
    • Reason for the veterinary is because it requires incision and suturing
  78. Why Dehorn cattle?
    • Protection of other cattle and humans
    • —Improves financial aspect
    • Improves behavior
    • —Cosmetic dehorning for cattle used for showing.
  79. What are the 2 types of castration?
    Open & Closed
  80. Name an instrument used in open castration
    • Newberry Castrating Knife - used to open the scrotal sac. Testicles are not removed with this instrument. 
    • Generally use hands to pull the testicles until they break.
  81. Name 2 instruments used in closed castration:
    • Band Elastrator - green band placed close to the body. 
    • Burdizzo Emasculator - used to crush the cords
  82. List 6 instruments/items used to dehorn cattle:
    • Dehorning paste
    • Dehorning saw
    • Barnes dehorner (Scoop dehorner)
    • Electric dehorner
    • Keystone dehorner
    • Gigli Wire
  83. Instrument that you would probably use if you wanted to permanently remove the horns of cattle?
    Barnes dehorner/Scoop dehorner
  84. Tetanus Antitoxin
    Antibody delivered directly into the body for short term protection
  85. Origin of sheep
    Asiatic Mouflon
  86. 4 domestic sheep that originated in U.S.
    • Barbado (Texas)
    • Targhee
    • LaMancha (Oregon)
    • Spanish- feral goats brought over by Spanish in the 1500s
  87. Targhee is a cross between what 3 breeds?
    • Rambouillet
    • Lincoln
    • Corriedale
  88. What sheep originated in Spain and came to the U.S in the late 1800s
    Rambouillet
  89. What goat originated in the French Alps and is popular in TX?
    Alpine
  90. Which goat dates back to the time of Moses 1500 B.C.
    Angora
  91. Which goat originated in Africa and is the most popular meat goat in TX
    Boer
  92. Which goats originated in Switzerland?
    • Saanen
    • Toggenburg
  93. What is the oldest dairy goat breed?
    Toggenburg
  94. Which sheep originated in England (1767) and came to the U.S (George Washington Breed Association) in 1888
    Border Leicester
  95. Which sheep originated in England in the 13th century?
    Cheviot
  96. Which sheep originated in England and came to the U.S. (Oregon) in 1860
    Dorset
  97. Which sheep is the largest of all sheep breeds with fine wool?
    Lincoln
  98. List 2 sheep that originate from England and came to the U.S. in the 1800s
    • Lincoln
    • Southdown
  99. Which goat is suited to hot weather conditions?
    Anglo-Nubian
  100. List 2 sheep with black face and legs
    • Hampshire
    • Suffolk
  101. Which goats originated in Africa?
    Pygmy, Boer
  102. Bacterial infections common in sheep
    • Clostridial Disease
    • Caseous lymphadenitis
    • Mastitis
  103. Common Viral infection in Sheep that is zoonotic
    Soremouth
  104. Bacterial infection common in sheep caused by parasites
    Foot Scald/Footrot
  105. Disease found in sheep and goats that is caused by a deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E.
    White Muscle Disease
  106. Disease of sheep and goats as a result of consuming large quantities of carbohydrates
    Lactic Acidosis/Ruminal lactic acidosis, often referred to as grain overload
  107. Acute poisoning resulting from accidentally providing excess amounts of copper in mineral mixes or incorrectly balanced grain rations.
    Affects what animal 
    • Copper Toxicity
    • Sheep
  108. 2 types of sheep farming
    • Range
    • Farm Flock
  109. Range sheep farming popular in what states
    Western US, CO, TX
  110. Farm flock sheep farming popular in what states?
    Indiana, OH, IL
  111. 2 products for sheep
    • Lamb 60% of income
    • Wool 40% of income
  112. ____ eats weeds; _____ eats grass
    • Sheep
    • Cattle
  113. Best sheep for range conditions?
    Rambouillet - good foragers and hearty
  114. Reproduction season for sheep
    End of August - 1st of Jan
  115. Gestation for sheep
    150 days
  116. Instruments used in Sheep Castration
    • All-in-one/3 in one
    • Emasculator
    • Elastolator
    • Hausman standard emasculator
    • Band elastrator
  117. #1 producer of sheep in the country
    Australia
  118. How to manage and protect your goat herd:
    • isolate,
    • vaccinate, 
    • tub of disinfectant (freshen daily) and a brush for scrubbing footwear or provide plastic over-boots for visitors.
    • identification tags
  119. Infectious disease of sheep and goats caused by prion
    Scrapie similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
  120. Brucellosis is found in what animals
    • Brucella abortus is found in cattle; and occasionally sheep, goats, and dogs.
    • B. melitensis is the most important cause of brucellosis in sheep and goats.
  121. Anthrax affects what animals?
    Cause?
    • Goats, sheep, cattle and horses are susceptible
    • Bacteria
  122. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) affects what animals?
    Cause
    • cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats
    • Viral
  123. Sore Mouth (Contagious Ecthyma, Orf) affects what animals?
    Cause
    • sheep and goats
    • Parapoxvirus
  124. Pinkeye affects what animals
    Cause
    • Cattle, sheep & goats
    • Virus
  125. Viral diseases of cattle, sheep, goats
    • Pinkeye
    • Foot and Mouth Disease
  126. Bacterial diseases that affect cattle, sheep and goats?
    • Anthrax
    • Brucellosis
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (cows) Scrapie (Sheep and Goats)
  127. Ringworm (zoonotic) affects what animals?
    cause
    • Sheep
    • Fungus
  128. Which animal is resistant to anti-parasite treatments?
    Goats
  129. Instruments used when assisting in lambing?
    Lambing forceps
  130. Instrument used to prevent uterine prolapse?
    Ewe plastic pessary
  131. Device used to be able to tell which ewe was bred to which ram.
    Lamb marking harness
  132. Instrument used to dehorn a goat
    Electric dehorner
  133. Device used to feed lambs and kids?
    Caprine feeding unit
  134. Electroejaculator
  135. Electro stimulator
  136. Artificial vagina 
  137. Obstetrical hook 
  138. Obstetrical chains
  139. Hercules fetal extractor
  140. Obstetrical forceps 
  141. Dehorning saw
  142. Barnes dehorner. Also called scoop dehorner
  143. Electric dehorner
  144. Goat dehorner 
  145. Keystone dehorner
  146. Newberry Castrating Knife
  147. Band Elastrator
  148. Burdizzo Emasculator 
  149. Lambing foreceps
  150. Ewe plastic pessary
  151. Lamb marking harness
  152. Mouth speculum
  153. Caprine Feeding Unit
  154. Goat WBC
    4 -13 thousand 
  155. Goat PCV
    20-38 percent
  156. Goat pulse
    70 - 80 bpm
  157. Goat temp
    101 - 104
  158. Goat puberty
    4 - 8 months
  159. Goat estrus
    12 - 24 days
  160. Goat estrus cycle
    39 hours
  161. Goat gestation
    150 days
  162. Sheep WBC
    4 - 12 thousand 
  163. Sheep PCV
    24 - 45 percent
  164. Sheep pulse
    70 - 80 bpm
  165. Sheep temp
    102 - 104
  166. Sheep puberty
    5 - 7 months
  167. Sheep estrus
    16 -17 days
  168. Sheep Length
    20 - 42 hours
  169. Sheep gestation
    150 days

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