HIV and other Retroviruses

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  1. Retroviruses
    HTLVs (Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Viruses)

    Single stranded RNA viruses, converted to DNA by reverse transcriptase and integrated into host chromosome
    • HIV 1-primary human pathogen, causes AIDS
    • HIV 2-mild illness

    HIV high mutation rate, multiple subtypes (Clades)
  3. HIV Epidemiology
    • Highest in Africa
    • Transmitted via sex, percutaneous, mother to infant
    • Affected by stage, source, amount, and susceptibility
    • Casual contact not a risk
  4. Pathophysiology
    • Rapid turnover
    • Rapid production of virus
    • Profound immune response
    • Attaches to soluble receptors (CCR and CD4)
    • Destroys cells (CD4)
    • Early infection mostly in lymph nodes
    • Affects immune system (impairs cell mediated immunity and altered production of antibodies)
    • Viral replication linked to cell function
  5. Clinical manifestation
    • Acute infection
    • Asymptomatic infection
    • Early advanced active infection
    • Late advanced active infection
    • AIDS
  6. Diagnosis
    • Serology
    • Direct detection
    • culture
    • amplification
    • major ramifications
  7. Treatment
    • antiretrovirals (controls viral replication)
    • Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • Nucleotide analog reverse trascriptase inhibitor
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Drugs given in combination
    • Drug therapy determined by "viral load"
    • Immune reconstitution
  8. Prevention
    • General population (safe sex)
    • Health care workers (blood borne pathogen, consider everything bio-hazard, do not get cut, report injury ASAP)
    • Prevention is better than treatment
Card Set:
HIV and other Retroviruses
2013-03-29 01:57:06

Basic overview of retroviruses, epidemiology of HIV, HIV viral dynamics, describe clinical manifestation of HIV, basic overview of treatment and ways of prevention.
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