A&P Chapter 16: ANS and higher order functions
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What is the ANS and its 2 divisions?
- 1. ANS: Autonomic nervous system, automatic control of internal homeostasis
- 2. Sympathetic division: "fight or flight"
- 2. Parasympathetic division: "rest and digest"
What are the outcomes of the sympathetic division of the ANS?
- 1. Heightened mental alertness
- 2. Increased metabolic rate (sugar to skeletal muscles)
- 3. Reduced digestive and urinary functions
- 4. Activation of energy reserves (glycogen and fat)
- 5. Increased respiratory rate and dilation of respiratory passageways
- 6. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
- 7. Activation of sweat glands
What are the outcomes of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
- 1. Decreased metabolic rate
- 2. Decreased heart rate and blood pressure
- 3. Increased secretion by salivary and digestive glands
- 4. Increased motility and blood flow in the digestive tract
- 5. Stimulation of urination and defecation
What is dual innervation and what is its effect on tissues?
- 1. Dual innervation: Vital organs that are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS
- 2. Commonly dual innervation creates opposite effects on the tissue
- 3. Autonomic tone: background level of activity that can either be increased or increased by activation of the para or symp ANS
- 4. The heart has an autonomic tone, when para is inhibited, HR increases and strength of heart beat may increase, when symp is inhibited, HR slows
How do we form and store memories on a cellular level?
- 1. Increased neurotransmitter release: synapses increase the amount of neurotransmitter released if frequently active
- 2. Facilitation at synapses: brings post-synaptic membrane closer to threshold
- 3. Formulation of additional synaptic connections: long term potentiation
- 4. Drugs that stimulate CNS: Caffeine and nicotine, NMDA receptors activate CG Ca channels activated by glutamate
What are the structures in the brain stem involved in our arousal from sleep?
- 1. Reticular activating system: receives sensory input from eyes and ears, produces widespread activation of the cerebral cortex
- 2. Groups of nuclei in the brain stem stimulate RAS with NE to maintain awake/alert state
What are some of the sleep cycles we study?
- 1. Deep sleep: Slow wave/NREM, entire body relaxes, activity in cerebral cortex is minimal, HR/BP/respiratory rate/energy utilization decrease by 30%
- 2. Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM): active dreaming, eyes move rapidly with dream events, inhibition of somatic motor neurons, changes in BP and respiratory rate, muscle tone decreases
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