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Give four examples of modifiable risk factors
Give four examples of non-modifiable risk factors
- Genetics / Heredity
Why does race increase the risk of CVD?
African and Indian ancestry increases the risk of CVD
Why does age increase the risk of CVD?
Athersclerosis and therefore other CVD increases with age
Why does gender increase the risk of CVD?
Men have more low density lipoproteins
Why heredity race increase the risk of CVD?
Family history can increase the risk of CVD
Why does smoking increase the risk of CVD?
More likely to have clots (due to carbon dioxide making platelets)
Why does diet increase the risk of CVD?
A high fat diet increases the amount of low density lipoproteins
Why does obesity increase the risk of CVD?
Obesity leads to more low density lipoproteins in the blood
Why does inactivity increase the risk of CVD?
Inactivity means the heart muscle is less adapted for effort. There is also more fat in the blood stream
What effect does regular exercise have on your heart?
Makes the heart more efficient (more muscle fibres, contractile elements, increases its size)
What effect does regular exercise have on your blood supply?
It creates denser capillary networks keeping the heart better oxygenated
Why is losing excess fat good for a persons heart?
Losing excess fat means a loss in weight which means there is less strain on their heart (it doesn't have to work as hard)
Exercise causes an increase in which type of lipoproteins, which do what? And a decrease in which type of lipoproteins, which do what?
- An increase in high density lipoproteins which reduce blood cholesterol by taking it to the liver where it is disposed of.
- A decrease in low density lipoproteins which are harmful at high levels since they promote deposition of fat in blood vessels (hence increasing blood pressure).
What do all the benefits of exercise (increased heart strength, weight loss, increase in HDL / decrease in LDL) eventually lead to and why is this good?
They all lower heart rate and blood pressure so that the work of the heart is reduced at rest and during exercise