Microbiology - Adaptive Immunity (Ch. 16)
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What is lymph?
A clear, watery (sometimes yellowish) fluid derived from body tissues that contains white blood cells.
What are plasma cells?
Plasma cells are B cells that are actively fighting against exogenous antigens and secreting antibodies.
What are immunoglobulins?
- They are large glycoproteins secreted by plasma cells that function as antibodies by binding with specific antigens.
- *They are antibodies.
What does the spleen do?
The spleen removes bacteria, viruses, toxins, and other foreign matter from the blood. It also cleanses the blood of old and damaged blood cells, stores blood platelets, and stores blood components such as iron.
What is the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system is a network of organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that make and move lymph from tissues to the bloodstream. The lymph system is a major part of the body's immune system.
What is cell-mediated immune response?
Cell-mediated immune response is an immune response used by T cells to fight intracellular pathogens and abnormal body cells.
What is an antigen?
An antigen is a molecule that triggers a specific immune response.
What is an epitope?
What's another name for it?
- An epitope is the specific part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
- They are also known as antigenic determinants.
What two characteristics make a "good" antigen?
- 1) Size - Larger molecules (between 5,000-100,000 daltons in molecular weight) are better than smaller molecules.
- 2) Complexity - The more complex the better.
What is MALT?
What does it include?
MALT is the mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue. It includes the appendix, lymphoid tissues of the respiratory tract, vagina, urinary bladder, and mammary glands. It also includes discrete bits of lymphoid tissue called Peyer's Patches in the wall of the small intestine.
What are the three groups of antigens?
- 1) Exogenous antigens
- 2) Endogenous antigens
- 3) Autoantigens
Which cells are responsible for cell-mediated immune responses?
- Descendants of T cells.
- *These cells regulate adaptive immune responses or attack intracellular pathogens, such as viruses replicating inside a cell. This process does not involve the use of antibodies.
Which cells are the main defensive cells of humoral immunity?
- Descendants of activated B cells.
- *They produce soluble proteins called antibodies that act against extracellular pathogens in the body's fluids.
What is adaptive immunity?
Adaptive immunity is resistance against pathogens that acts more effectively upon subsequent infections with the same pathogen.
Where do B lymphocytes arise and mature?
- B lymphocytes arise and mature in the red bone marrow of adults.
- T lymphocytes also arise in the red bone marrow of adults, but then travel to and mature in the thymus.
What are the two main types of lymphocytes?
- 1) B lymphocytes
- 2) T lymphocytes
What are the five distinctive attributes of adaptive immunity?
- 1) Specificity
- 2) Inducibility
- 3) Clonality
- 4) Unresponsiveness to self
- 5) Memory
What are three functions of the lymph?
- The lymph
- 1) Removes bacteria and certain proteins from the tissues
- 2) Transports fat from the small intestine
- 3) Supplies mature lymphocytes to the blood.
What are the five classes of antibodies?
- 1) IgG
- 2) IgA
- 3) IgM
- 4) IgE
- 5) IgD
What are six functions of antibodies?
- 1) Activation of complement and inflammation
- 2) Neutralization
- 3) Opsonization
- 4) Killing by oxidation
- 5) Agglutination
- 6) Antibody-Dependent cellular toxicity
What is agglutination?
It is a process where antibodies are able to clump cells and/or pathogens together. This happens because each antibody has two antigen-binding sites, so it can attach one to each cell. Agglutination may hinder the activity of pathogenic organisms and also increases the chance they will be phagocytized or filtered out of the blood by the spleen.
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