Monocytes and Macrophages
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What macrophages are located in the liver?
What macrophages are located in the CNS?
What macrophages are located in the bone?
What macrophages are located in the skin?
What macrophages are located in the lung?
Describe a monoblast
- 1-2 nucleoli
- Dark blue cytoplasm
- May have gray tint
- No cytoplasmic granules
Describe a promonocyte
- 0-1 nucleoli
- Blue to gray cytoplasm
- Fine azurophilic granules
Describe a monocyte
- Horseshoe or kidney bean shaped nucleus
- Fine, lacy chromatin
- Blue-gray cytoplasm
- May have pseudopods and vacuoles
- Many fine azurophilic granules give the appearance of "ground glass"
Describe a macrophage
- Blue-gray cytoplasm with many vacuoles
- Coarse azurophilic granules may contain ingested material
What is the reference range of Monocytes in peripheral blood?
What is the function of monocytes/macrophages?
- Major role in initiating and regulating the immune response
- Process ingested material
- Process antigenic information, which is relayed to the T-helper (CD4) lymphocyte
- Very efficient phagocytic cells with receptors for IgG or complement-coated organisms
- Secrete cytokines/interleukins and tumor necrosis factor
What cells are known as "scavenger cells"?
- Because of their ability to ingest foreign material
What do blood monocytes ingest?
- Antigen-antibody complexes
- Activated clotting factors
- Limiting the coagulation response
What do splenic macrophages ingest?
- Old/damaged RBCs
- Conserve iron for recycling
What do liver macrophages ingest?
Fibrin degradation products
What do bone marrow macrophages ingest?
- Abnormal RBCs
- Ingest bare megakaryocyte nuclei or extruded RBC nuclei
- Store and supply iron for hemoglobin synthesis
What is associated with monocytosis?
- Recovery stage from acute bacterial infections
- Recovery following marrow suppression by drugs
- Subacute bacterial endocarditis
- Autoimmune disorders (systemic lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid arthritis)
Is the most common lipid storage disorder
Has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern
Deficiency in glucocerbosidase
Glucocerboside accumulates in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, liver, with this cell more commonly seen in the bone marrow
- Gaucher disease(Gaucher cell looks like crumpled paper)
Disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern
Deficiency in sphingomyelinase
Sphingomyelin to accumulate in macrophages in multiple organs and bone marrow, where this cell can be seen
- Niemann-Pick disease(Niemann-Pick foam cell)
What is associated with monocytopenia?
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