Chapter 5

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Author:
kberg412
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210288
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Chapter 5
Updated:
2013-04-01 00:30:57
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Microbial Metabolism
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Microbial Metabolism
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  1. What is microbal metabolism?
    The collection of controlled biochemical reactions that take place within the microbe, consisting of thousands of chemical reactions and control mechanisms, the reactions are nevertheless elegantly logical and can be understood in a simplified form.
  2. What is the ultimate function of an organism's metabolism?
    To reproduce the organism, and that metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements.
  3. What are the eight elementary statements that metabolic processes are guided by?
    • 1. Every cell acquires nutrients, which are the chemicals necessary for metabolism.
    • 2. Metabolism requires energy from light or from the catabolism of acquired nutrients.
    • 3. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
    • 4. Using enzymes, cells catabolize nutrient molecules to form elementary building blocks called precursor metabolites.
    • 5. Using the precursor metabolites, energy from ATP, and other enzymes, cells construct larger building blocks in anabolic reactions.
    • 6. Cells use enzymes and additional energy from ATP to anabolically link building blocks together to form macromolecules in polymerization reactions.
    • 7. Cells grow by assembling macromolecules into cellular structures such as ribosomes, membranes, and cell walls.
    • 8. Cells typically reproduce once they have doubled in size.
  4. What two major classes of reactions can metabolism be divided into?
    Catabolism and anabolism.
  5. Define pathways.
    A series of such chemical reactions.
  6. Define catabolic pathways.
    Cells which break larger molecules into smaller products and release energy (exergonic).

    Ex. the breakdown of lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.
  7. Define anabolic pathways.
    Synthesize large molecules (macromolecules) from the smaller products of catabolism. Because building anything takes energy, anabolic pathways are endergonic (they require more energy than they release).

    Ex. The synthesis of lipids for cell membranes from glycerol and fatty acids.
  8. How to cells store some of the energy that is released during catabolism?
    In bonds of ATP, though much of the energy is lost as heat.
  9. What is another result of the breakdown of large molecules by catablic pathways?
    The production of numerous smaller molecules, some of which are precursor metabolites of anabolism.
  10. What is an example of a bacterium that can synthesize everything in their cells from just precursor metabolites?
    Escherichia coli.  Other organisms must aquire some anabolic building blocks from outside their cells as nutrients. 
  11. Where does the energy required for anabolic pathways usually come from?
    The ATP molecules produced during catabolism.
  12. Define a cell's metabolism in general.
    Involves both catabolic pathways that break down macromolecules to supply molecular building blocks and energy in the form of ATP, and anabolic pathways that use the building blocks and ATP to synthesize marcomolecules needed for growth and reproduction.

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