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Definition of entomon?
Entomon is greek for insect: referring to entome meaing "cut in two" since the body is divided into segments.
Definition of insectum?
Insectum is latin for insect: referring to inseco meaning "cut up" into segments.
Name the hierarchy of the biological classification system.
Kingdom -> phylum -> class -> order -> family -> genus -> species
List 6 characteristics common to all Arthropods (the arthropoda).
- 1) Body consists of segments grouped into fairly distinct regions.
- 2) Body segments (at least some) have segmented appendages attached to them.
- 3) Bilateral symmetry
- 4) An exoskeleton
- 5) An open circulatory system
- 6) Respire by means of tracheae or gills
What class of arthropod is the most commonly encountered?
The insects, also known as the class insecta.
List 5 characteristics of the class Insecta (the insects).
- 1) Body with three distinct regions (head, thorax, abdomen)
- 2) Head with one pair of antennae and paired mouthpart
- 3) Thorax with three pair of legs - one per segment
- 4) No locomotor appendages on abdomen (in adults)
- 5 With 0, 1 or 2 pairs of wings.
Put these 'traits' in the proper order that they appeared throughout history: wingless, winged, land, flowering plants and mammals, recognizable insects.
- 1) land
- 2) wingless insects
- 3) winged insects
- 4) recognizable insects
- 5) flowering plants and mammals etc.
Approximately how many species of insects exist?
- Approx. 1 million species have been named so far.
- 10-30 million species in the world
- 60% of all species on earth are insects
Comparing insects to birds and humans:
one ton/acre in the tropics
400 pounds/acre in temperate areas
1 pound/acre in temperate areas
14 pounds/acre in the world
What are the three functional "guilds" that insects fall into?
- 1) Primary consumers: phytophagous (35% of insects eat plants)
- 2) Predators/Parasites: 40% of insects feed on other animals, especially other insects.
- 3) Decomposers: 25% of insects decompose organic matter
What are some useful things that insects do for us?
- They pollinate.
- Many are edible.
- They provide population control over other things.
- Decomposers and scavengers.
- Useful for science and medicine.
Are insects detrimental?
Yes, they can destroy plants, vector diseases, and have adverse effects on vertebrates
Definition of tagmosis?
Tagmosis is the grouping of body segments into functional units.
Definition of tagma(ta)?
Tagma(ta) is the grouped segments of a functional unit e.g., head, thorax, abdomen.
The insect body is composed of what three distinct tagmata?
The head, thorax, and abdomen.
Name some advantages and disadvantages of exoskeletons.
- -protective armor
- -protection from invasion of pathogens or other harmful agents
- -impermeable to water
- -base for muscle attachment
- -Does not expand - must be shed in order to grow - molting
Name the 4 layers of the exoskeleton (cuticle) of an insect.
- 1) Epicuticle (non-living)
- 2) Exocuticle (non-living)
- 3) Endocuticle (non-living)
- 4) Epidermis (living)
The epicuticle consists of how many inner layers?
Two: the outer and inner layers.
In what layers of the exoskeleton does chitin and resilin exist?
The exocutile and endocutile layers. These two layers are the middle layers.
What do chitin and resilin do for the exoskeletons?
- Chitin provides strength and rigidity.
- Resilin provides flexibility.
What does the term 'sclerite' refer to?
A portion of the exoskelteon, specifically, a plate of body wall surrounded by sutures or membrane.
What does the term suture refer to?
A portion of the exoskeleton. Specifically, the line of fusion of two plates.
What does the term 'membrane' refer to when dealing with exoskeletons?
A thin and pliable cuticle.
What are 'setae'?
Setae are hair-like projections of the cuticle which arise from a trichogen cell.
What are 'glandular setae'?
Glandular setae are setae that produce secretions involved in protection or communication.
On an exoskeleton, what is the difference between a spine and a seta?
Spines are simply outgrowths and are not produced by a cell. Spines are also used just for grasping, clinging, and protection while the setae can be used for protection and communication.
What are ocelli?
They are the 'basic' eyes that most insects have.
What are the individual pieces of an insects compound eye called?
Ommatidia. The more they have, the better their vision.
Name an insect that obtains nutrients via the "piercing and sucking" method.
Name an insect that obtains nutrients via the "sponging" method.
Name an insect that obtains nutrients via the "siphoning" method.
Moths and butterflies!
Name an insect that obtains nutrients via the "chewing and lapping" method.
Name the four types of insect legs?
- 1) Cursorial
- 2) Natatorial
- 3) Saltatorial
- 4) Raptorial
What are cursorial legs for?
What are natatorial legs for?
What are saltatorial legs for?
What are raptorial legs for?
Grasping (preying mantis)
What is a haltere?
A balancing organ that evolved from a secondary wing. Bees have them. They are basically a stick with a ball at the end.
What is a tegmina?
A leather-like forewing found on some insects.
What is a hemelytron?
A "half-wing" forewing (found on true bugs)
What are elytrona?
Hardened front wings.
Name 5 types of wings found on insects.
- 1) Membranous wings (flies, bees)
- 2) Tegmina
- 3) Hemelytron (true bugs)
- 4) Elytron(a) (beetles)
- 5) Scale covered wings
An insect's abdomen contains legs.
True or False.
False. The abdomen of an insect never contains legs.
What is an ovipositor?
A stinger is a modified ____ .
What are cerci?
Sensory structures in the rear end of an insect. (Earwigs etc)
What is an endocrine system in charge of?
Growth, reproduction, "change", internal communication.
Difference between ingestion and digestion?
Ingestion is the taking in of food, digestion is the breaking down of food.
The insect digestive system consists of what three parts (guts)?
- The foregut, the midgut, and the hindgut.
- Foregut = breakdown
- Midgut = absorption
- Hindgut = excretory system
List 3 excretory products found in animals.
- 1) Ammonia - easy to produce but toxic
- 2) Urea - not as easy to produce, not as toxic
- 3) Uric Acid - difficult to produce, not toxic.
Ammonia is produced by...
small insects in moist environments.
Urea is produced by...
Uric acid is produced by...
Most terrestrial insects.
What are malphigian tubules?
An excretory system that collects waste from inside the body. (Tube like things)
What are spiracles?
The opening of an air tube that goes inside the insect.
What is a trachea?
The tube that brings air into an insect.
Gills are the breathing tools of insects that live where?
In water. Duh. Fuck, if you couldn't figure this out simply by noticing the word "gills" then you should problem kill yourself.
An insect's circulatory system consists of what?
- 1) Dorsal vessel (blood pipe)
- 2) Ventral nerve cord
- 3) Hemocoel
Circulates the hemolymph which is a collection of blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid.
What is hemolymph?
Insect blood. The individual blood cells are called hemocytes.
Name some functions of the hemolypmh.
- 1) Transports nutrients, waste products, hormones.
- 2) Stores water and ions.
- 3) Internal pressure.
Does insect blood contain hemoglobin?
No! Insect blood does not transport oxygen.
Name some functions of hemocyte cells.
- Wound healing