NCE

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NCE
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  1. Dreikurs
    • Adler's student
    • Treatment of children in school settings
    • Group therapy in private practice
  2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • -projective test which client is shown a series of pictures and asked to tell a story
    • - Henry Murray 1938
  3. J. Watson
    • - behaviorist
    • -behavior is learning rather than insight into conscious mind
    • - little albert
  4. Ivan Pavlov
    • - Classical conditioning
    • - reflexes = respondent
    • - behavior therapy
  5. B.F. Skinner
    • - behavior is molded solely by its consequences
    • - instrumental conditioning = operant
    • - law of effect - Edward Thorndike
    • - behavior modification
    • - operant conditioning
  6. Albert Bandura
    • - social learning theory
    • - person's behavior increases when sees somebody else getting reinforce for it
    • = vicarious/modeling
  7. Extinction
    - decrease behavior after initial extinction burst or response burst
  8. Stimulus generalization
    • = 2nd order conditioning
    • - stimulus similar to conditioned stimulus produces same reaction
  9. Stimulus discrimination
    • - opposite of stimulus generalization
    • - learning process is "fine tuned" --> respond to specific stimulus
  10. Experimental Neurosis
    • - Pavlov
    • - differentiation process becomes too tough b/c stimulus are almost identical --> sign of emotional disturbance
  11. Mary Cover Jones
    "learning" could be serve as treatment for a phobic reaction
  12. Biofeedback device
    • - uses to enhance client's self-control & a form of operant conditioning
    • - provide client w/ biological info
  13. EMG
    - use to measure muscle tension
  14. EEG
    - monitor brainwaves
  15. Ratio schedules of reinforcement
    rely on work output
  16. Continuous reinforcement
    each behavior is reinforced
  17. backup reinforcer
    an item or activity which can be purchased using tokens
  18. Joseph Wolpe
    • - systematic desensitization
    • - based on pavlov
    • - relies on relaxation and imagining feared stimulus
    • - relaxation training, construction of anxiety hierarchy, desensitization in imagination, in vivo desensitization
  19. sensate focus
    • - William Masters and Virginia Johnson
    • - behavioral sex therapy
    • -counter conditioning
  20. Implosive/Flooding therapy
    • implosive- conduct in imagination and pschoanalytic symbolism
    • flooding - client expose to feared stimulus
  21. Logotherapy
    • Viktor Frankl
    • existentialism
    • paradoxical - exaggerate dysfunctional behavior
    • healing through meaning
  22. Existentialist 3 worlds
    • umwelt- physical and biological
    • mitwelt - relationship
    • eigenwelt - identity
  23. Reality/choice therapy
    • William Glasser
    • present behavior
    • create own reality w/ behavior they choose
    • success identiy = result of being loved and accepted
    • don't deal with dreams, the past, traumatic memories
    • no drugs
  24. Reality therapy 8 steps
    • 1. build relationship w/ client
    • 2. focus on present moment behavior
    • 3. help evaluate current behavior
    • 4. develop a contract w/ action plan
    • 5. client commit to plan
    • 6. accept no excuse
    • 7. no punishments
    • 8. refuse to give up
  25. REBT (rational emotion behavior therapy)
    • Albert Ellis
    • emotional disturbance is result of irrational thoughts and ideas
    • change thinking --> change life
    • irrational belief change --> rational belief
    • ABCDE
  26. Cognitive Therapy
    • Aaron BECK
    • Similar to REBT
    • Automatic thoughts = distortion of reality 
    • Polarizing, overgeneralizing
  27. Transactional Analysis (TA)
    • Eric Berne
    • Here and now; transaction b/t people
    • life script - parent, adult, child
    • Gestalt + behavior
  28. Adult Ego
    • Ego
    • neopsyche
    • process facts and not focus on feelings
    • rational, logical
  29. Parent ego
    • Super ego
    • synthesis of messages received from parental figures
    • 2 functions - nurturing parents, critical parents
    • nurturing - sympathetic, caring, protective
    • critical - should, ought, must
  30. Child ego
    • ID
    • archaeopsyche
    • nature - spontaneous, impulsive, untrained
    • little professor - creative & intuitive; acts on hunces
    • adapted - comply to avoid consequences
  31. Karpman's drama triangle
    • TA
    • person change from victim -->persecutor-->rescuer during discussion
  32. Unfinished Business (Gestalt)
    an unexpressed feeling of resentment, rage, guilt, anxiety or other emotions interfere w/ present situation and cause difficulties
  33. Dialogue experiment
    • top dog
    • under dog
    • empty chair
  34. Rogerian
    • changes occur in 3 key factors
    • attitude
    • empathic understanding
    • unconditional positive regards
  35. 3 types of empathy
    • Allen Ivey
    • basic = same level as client
    • subtractive = counselor behavior does not completely convey understanding
    • additive = most desirable, adds to client understanding and awareness
  36. Retroflection
    • Gestalt
    • act of doing to yourself what you really want to do to someone else
  37. Little Hans
    psychoanalytic constricts such as oedipus and castration anxiety (Freud)
  38. Anna O
    1st psychoanalytic patient
  39. Little Albert
    • Watson: conditioned Albert to afraid of furry objects
    • learned condition --> fears are learned
  40. Eric Berne
    • Transactional analysis (TA)
    • 3 ego stages: child, adult, parent
  41. Abreaction/catharsis
    • carthasis - mild purge of emotion
    • abreaction - repressed emotional outburst is very powerful and violent
    • Freud and Breuer
  42. Introspection
    any process in which client attempts to describe his/her own internal thoughts, feelings, and ideas
  43. Superego
    • moral seat
    • conscience and ego idea
  44. Ego
    • reality principal
    • balances ID and superego
  45. ID
    • biological forces: sex and aggression
    • operates on pleasure principal
    • immediate gratification and tension reduction
  46. Eros/Thanatos
    • Freud
    • Eros - life instinct
    • Thanatos - death instinct
  47. Ego defense mechanism
    • repression - most important
    • displacement - take anger out on safe target
    • projection - can't accept self attribute --> give to others
    • reaction formation - deny unacceptable unconscious impulse by acting opposite
    • sublimation - express unacceptable impulse in acceptable manner
    • rationalization - overrates/underrates reward or outcome
    • identification - joining a feared person to relieve anxiety
    • suppression/denial - occur when purposely don't think of situation
    • introjection - person to accept an aggressor's values
  48. Logos/eros
    • Jung
    • logos - logic
    • eros - intuition
  49. Jung's archetypes
    • persona - social mask a person wears
    • animus - masculine side of female
    • anima - feminine side of male
    • androgynous - person has both male and female traits
    • shadow/dark side
    • self- symbolize via mandala
  50. Constructivist therapy
    • brief therapy - examines what worked in the past
    • narrative therapy - look at stories and attempt to rewrite
  51. Jung
    • psychodynamic
    • unconscious 2 parts: personal unconscious, collective unconscious - archetypes
    • MBTI
  52. Adler
    • individual psychology
    • stresses "will power" - generates feelings of superiority
    • behaviors is motivate primary by future opportunities rather than the past
    • birth order 
    • - first born - leaders
    • - 2nd - competitive rebellious
    • sibling interaction > parent interaction
  53. Jacob Moreno
    Coined term group therapy in 1931
  54. Primary group
    • healthy lifestyle, coping strategies
    • i.e. teaches birth control
  55. 2ndary group
    • a problem or disturbance but not severe
    • i.e. decrease severity or length of problem & include prevention
    • grief, shyness
  56. tertiary group
    individual difficulties that are more serious and long standing
  57. Risky shift phenomenon
    group behavior is not more risky but @ least shift more toward social normal than an individual decision made prior to group participation
  58. T group
    • training group
    • not focus
  59. Assertive training group
    behavioristic and highly structured
  60. Personalities not for group
    • hostile individuals who act out aggressively
    • actively suicidal or homicidal
    • psychotic (not in touch with reality)
    • self-centered
  61. Closed group
    • more cohesiveness
    • membership more stable
    • not cost-effective when group members drop out
  62. Group process
    manner in which communication transpires
  63. Group content
    what the group is discussing
  64. Career benefits
    • people make assumption that are sometimes true, sometimes false
    • counselor help people explore the accuracy of their beliefs in real world
    • changing a belief --> action and open up possibilities
    • career beliefs include overcoming perceived obstacles, approval of others
  65. Life Rainbow
    • Donald Super
    • primary roles: child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, home maker, partner, parent, pensioner
    • life arenas: home, school, work, community
    • life space: personal and situational factors
    • life style: combination of life roles
    • major life changes: growth, exploration, maintenance, disengagement
  66. Gestalt group
    awareness, experiencing the moments
  67. Person-centered group
    explore full range of feeling, increase self-understanding
  68. psychoanalytic group
    reexperiencing early family relationships
  69. Stages of group
    • formation
    • orientation and exploring
    • transition
    • working
    • consolidation and termination
  70. transactional analysis group
    making new decisions, become free of scripts and games, altering courses
  71. Behavioral group
    eliminate problem behaviors and teach self-management skills
  72. REBT group
    constructive changes in client's thinking and behavior, move pass self-defeating behaviors
  73. Reality group
    improve quality of life and take responsibility
  74. Adlerian group
    recognize strength and accept responsibility, increase self-esteem, develop social interests
  75. Frank Parson
    • 1909 trait and factor theory
    • know self
    • know occupations
    • use "true reasoning" to match
    • trait = client characteristics
    • factor = characteristic of jobs
    • 3 steps of implementation
    • knowledge of self, aptitudes, and interests; knowledge of jobs; matching individual with work
  76. David Tiedeman
    • 1969
    • anticipate occupational choices and adjusting to those choices 
    • stages: exploration, crystalization, choice, clarification
    • 2-part process for decision making: anticipation and implementation/adjustment
  77. John Holland
    • 1966, 1985
    • RIASEC
    • Realistic - outdoor, hands on, practical
    • Investigative - research, science, abstract
    • Artistic - creative, ideas, arts, literature
    • Social - helping, people and service
    • Enterprise - leadership, promotion
    • Convention - monitor, organize
    • used in: SII, self directed search, dictionary of occupational tittles, color of parachute
  78. MBTI
    • Jungung psychology
    • extroverted vs. introverted
    • Sensing vs. intuition
    • Thinking vs. feeling
    • Judgement vs. perception
    • 16 types
  79. Ann Roe
    • 1956
    • fulfill career needs based on early life experiences in family
    • career choice influence by: genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interests, education, intelligence
    • fields: services, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoors, science, general culture, arts, entertainment
    • levels:
  80. Linda Gottfredson (circumscription, compromise, self-creation)
    • people compromise when make career aspiration (sex-typed, learning, experience)
    • compromise involve the process of modifying career choices due to limiting factors such as prestige, gender, field of interest
    • distinguish occupations according to masculinity, femininity  occupational prestige, field of work
    • self-concept interacts w/ person's occupation stereotypes when making decisions about compatibility of dif. occupations
    • sustainability
    • 1. perceived gender appropriateness
    • 2. prestige
    • 3. preference and personality needs
  81. Eli Ginzberg
    • 3 stages of career development
    • fantasy (birth to 12) - role playing, imagination
    • tentative (12-17) - recognition of one's interest abilities and values
    • realistic (17 and older) - ID an occupational choice
  82. Donal Super
    • "life rainbow"
    • personal growth and career development
    • focus on life roles, not just interests and abilities
    • career choicer is an expression of self-concept, not just matching to an occupation
    • career takes center stage --> other life role must take 2ndary stage and vice versa, if not --> stress
    • people differ in personalities, needs, values, and interests
    • people qualify for a # of occupations
    • work self-concepts change with time
    • process of change covers w/ a series of life changes
    • 5 stages (GEEMD)
    • - growth, explore, establish, maintain, decline
  83. DECIDES model
    • Krumboltz and Gelatt
    • define problem
    • establish an action plan
    • clarify values
    • ID alternatives
    • discover probable outcomes
    • eliminate alternatives systematically
    • start action
  84. John Krumbolts social learning theory
    • lifelong process, not one time decision
    • learn how to make wise decision using assessment, learning experiences, cognitive and emotional responses
    • DECIDES model
    • career beliefs
    • planned happenstance
    • happenstance learning theory
    • behavioristic model
  85. Planned Happenstance
    • careers influence more by unplanned events than by planning
    • people can take constructive action to create beneficial unplanned opportunities
    • open mindedness, curiosity, optimism, flexibility, persistence
  86. Sunny Hansen Integrative life planning
    • self-concept w/ satisfaction to self & benefit to society, occupation is only one 
    • tasks:
    • find work that needs doing in global conext
    • weaving lives into a meaningful whole
    • connecting family and work
    • valuing pluralism
    • explore spirituality and life purpose
    • managing personal transition and organizational change
  87. Decision making theory
    • Gelatt
    • predictive - probable alternatives, actions, possibilities
    • value system - one's relative preferences regarding outcomes
    • decision - provide rules and criteria for evaluating outcome
  88. OOH
    • occupational outlook handbook
    • trends in job market
    • easy-to-read source in search of career info
  89. DOT
    • dictionary of occupational titles
    • each job has 9 digit code
    • first three described occupational category
    • middle three describe tasks in relation to data, people, and things
    • last three alphabetize the titles
  90. GOE
    • Guide for Occupational Exploration
    • list 14 interest areas 
    • arts, entertainment, media, science, math, engineering, plants and animals, law, law enforcement, public safety, mechanics, installers, repairs, construction, mining, drilling, transportation, ....
  91. Computer Assisted Career Guidance System (CACG)
    • SIGI PLUS
    • Choices,
    • Discover
  92. Physical disabilities
    • sedentary: maximum lifting is 10 lbs
    • light work: maxing lifting is 20 lbs
    • medium work: maximum lifting is 50 lbs
    • hard work: maximum 100lbs
    • very hard work: maximum exceeds 100
  93. normative test
    • each item is independent of all other items
    • can be compared to others who have taken the test
  94. ipsative
    • measures compare traits w/in same individual
    • do not compare a person to other person who took the test
    • Kuder Occupational Interest survey (KOIS)
    • does not reveal absolute strength
  95. Spiral test
    items get progressively more difficult
  96. cyclical test
    several sections which are spiral in nature
  97. test battery
    • several measures are used to produce results that could be more accurate than those derived  from merely using a single source
    • horizontal test
  98. parallel/equivalent forms
    • a test has two versions
    • each form has same mean, standard error and other statistical components
  99. validity
    • the test measures what it purports to measure
    • content validity - does the test examine or sample behavior under scrutiny
    • construct validity - test ability to measure a theoretical constuct
    • concurrent - how well test compares to other instruments that are intended for the same purpose
    • predictive/empirical - test's ability to predict future behavior according to established behavior
  100. Francis Galton
    • intelligence was normally distributed like height or weight and primarily genetic
    • a unitary faculty
  101. internal consistency reliability (homogeneity)
    • each item on the test measure the same thing as every other item
    • the performance on one item truly related to performance on another
    • use Kuder-Richardson
  102. IQ (intelligence quotient)
    • created by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
    • standardized measure
    • Standard Age Score (SAS)
    • MA/CA x100
    • not best test for adult
    • mean 100, STD 16
  103. Wechsler IQ test
    • WPPSI-III - Wechlser preschol and priamary scale of intelligence
    • WAIS-III - Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (16 and older)
    • WISC-IV - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6-16)
    • Mean 100, STD 15
  104. MMPI-2
    • 1940
    • standardized personality test
    • Minesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2
  105. psychometric
    any form of mental testing
  106. projective test
    • neutral stimuli
    • association
    • completetion
    • construction
    • show client vague, ambiguous stimuli
  107. 16PF (16 personality factor questionnaire)
    • Raymond Cattell
    • suitable for people 16 and above
    • measures key personality factors
  108. Interest inventory
    • work best with individuals high school or older
    • stable around age 25
    • emphasize professional positions and minimize blue-collar jobs
    • reliable and not threatening to test taker

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