Essay Two: Industrial Revolution

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  1. Intro
    Similar to the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution was a significant turning point in European and world history. The Industrial Revolution was a movement with characteristics that were the same everywhere: increase in growth, application of science to industry, capital, rural and urban community development, and an entirely new working class. This movement, despite its great impact, was not a worldwide origination at first. It developed first in Britain. Furthermore, there are two phases.
  2. Why Britiain: Cause -Agriculture, Attitude
    Why Britain? A variety of factors caused this. First, there was the development of an agricultural revolution, leading to changes in methods of farming and stock breeding that led to food production, lower prices, an increase in population, greater demand or goods, and textiles. Secondly, the general attitude of the men of business, the entrepreneurs, had an overzealous desire to acquire wealth. Their curiosity led them to, despite the risks, invests their money in new places.
  3. Why Britain: Cause : Geography,
    Another factor was their geography. Because Britain was small, transportation was easier than on the Continent. Mineral resources also gave Britain the advantage. They possessed coal reserves that were more readily accessible to them than other places. Roads, rivers, and canals linked the major industrial centers of the North, Midlands, London, and the Atlantic. 
  4. Why Britain: Cause : Government
    The government also contributed to the progression through their progression of private property and few restrictions. The government was a supporter of laissez-faire and encouraged free enterprise. This was because it was dominated by the gentry and middle class after the Glorious Revolution
  5. Why Britain: Cause : Market
    Markets allowed the British to provide an outlet for their goods. Their merchant marine also enabled transport anywhere and the ability to produce cheaply the articles most in demand contributed to their prosperity.
  6. Why Britain: Cause: Revolution
    Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution was allowed to develop because of the Scientific Revolution that preceded it. It was England that produced the greatest contributors of the Scientific Revolution, such as Newton and Boyle. Lastly, the British were eccentrics. They were able to produce the weirdest gadgets.
  7. On the continent
    On the continent, it developed differently, and much more slowly, that Britain. Why? This was because of lack of good roads, toll stations increasing the cost and prices of goods, guild restrictions, and the less zealous entrepreneurs. However, as soon as British inventors began to move to the continent, it led to great development of machines and the passing on of skills to the Belgian, French, etc. that eventually used it to develop technical schools.
  8. Continent advantages
    The Continent too had advantages, which explains why it was the Continent and not another civilization, such as that of China. For example, they developed a strong, wealthy, industrial middle class that no other civilization had. This goes back to 1200, however, with the bourgeoisies, where they were the Knights of Shire; however, now they are the businessmen with money. 
  9. Rising classes
    These rising classes of middle class folk dominated the nobles, later on leading to both struggles and merging of the two classes, leaving behind the newer proletariat class to destructive and destitute conditions. They also had a willing government. While Britain’s government favored laissez-faire, the Continent benefited from interference of the government. 
  10. Costs
    They provided costs of technical education, awarded grants to inventors and investors, etc. They also took on the public works, such as roads, used tariffs to protect their markets from the cheap British goods that were sure to undermine their efforts at industrialization. 
  11. Friedrich List
    Friedrich List even advocated a rapid and large-scale program of industrialization to build the nation’s strength, especially through protective tariffs. One more advantage was the Scientific Revolution
  12. Chem and science
    Advances in chemical and science led to new concepts, such as the Scientific Method, which then, just as in Britain, produced a mindset to improve the life conditions. It created a fascination with practical science, which eventually led to the Steam engine in Britain. One more was the Protestant work ethic. While Christianity laid down progress toward the second coming, Protestants wanted progress through money, which dictated one’s place in heaven.
  13. How did it develop?
    How did it develop in Britain? It was all through a chain reaction, where one thing led to another that caused the development of something else, etc. It began with the cotton textile industry in the 1770s and 1780s. This was the first major step toward the Industrial revolution with the creation of the modern factory. Inventions like the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves, the water frame by Arkwright and the mule by Crompton led to the ability to weave more cloth and began the slow transition from workers at home to workers in machines. 
  14. Steam engine
    However, what really took off was the steam engine by, first, Thomas Newcomen, who desired to solve the problem of lack of resources that were used for homes and iron work, as well as bring water from mines to the surface. It was perfected with James Watt, who, by developing the engine, then allowed it to drive machinery, which was applied to machines and increased cotton textile production.
  15. Energy
    It was a tireless source of energy that could function anywhere, even away from rivers. However, this led to the need for more resources; and coal was a crucial resource, leading to new processes in the iron industry. In the Middle Ages, the process of producing iron was the same in the Middle Ages. 
  16. Henry COrt
    However, Henry Cort developed the process of puddling in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce a higher quality wrought iron. Due to its sturdiness, it allowed the iron industry to boom, especially as the demand for more machines took place, especially for transportation.
  17. expansion of transportation
    Britain developed the expansion of transportation facilities as entrepreneurs realized the need for more efficient means of movement. This led to canals, new roads, and, most importantly, the railroad with wooden rails and later cast iron rails, which began in the mines to push the handcarts, and later developed into sources of transportation to pull other products. For example, Richard Trevithick pioneered the first steam-powered locomotive to pull ten tons of ore. George Stephenson’s Rocket however, was able to carry passengers, a great accomplishment.
  18. Railroad
    The railroad itself led to significantly great improvements, such as the growth of industries and a greater demand for coal and iron. Furthermore, huge capital demands necessary for railway construction encouraged a whole new group of middle-class investors to invest in joint-stock companies. The building of railroads also benefited workers, who left their villages, created large markets, increased sales, which necessitate more factories and machinery, and reinvestment, in a cycle.
  19. Factories and railroads led to
    With factories and railroads, what will these lead to? Factory workers were arranged in factories and were brought to live in areas surrounding the factories to allow easier access to their jobs, as well as the payment of wages, a new characteristic of the Industrial Age. Although it was hard to discipline these workers, factory owners kept their workers disciplined by punishing them for things, such as tardiness or drunkenness; kids were just beaten. Religious sects, such as Methodism, also reinforced the idea of hard work leading to salvation in the mind of factory workers.
  20. Final contribution of Britain
    Finally, their final contribution to the world through industrialization was their showcasing of materials in their Great Exhibition of 1851, held in Crystal Palace, which showcased a wide variety of their products and demonstrated Britain’s success. Furthermore, it also showed their exploitation of other countries, such as India. Nevertheless, this market took place in a year when industrialization would boom far beyond what others had expected, ushering in Phase Two of the revolution
  21. Unlike Britain
    Unlike Britain, the development of industrialization on the continent had a very slow progression. How did it develop? Although it was through the same basic idea—a chain reaction—industrialization on the Continent was focused in several areas, rather than just one. Furthermore, they lagged behind Britain greatly in the first phase of the Industrial Revolution. For example, while France was using 64,000 tons of raw cotton, Britain used 286,000. 
  22. steam engine on continent
    Furthermore, the use of the steam engine came a century after Britain; and it was used primarily in mining and metallurgy rather than in textiles as in Britain. One last difference was the backbone of each area. 
  23. Backbones
    Britain’s backbone was the cotton industry; the Continent’s was iron and coal. Even though new and old techniques were characteristics of Continental industries, the development of coke-blast iron would cause Germany to surpass Britain in the second phase of the Revolution.
  24. US
    The United States also jumped on board with industrialization when Samuel Slater established the first textile factory using water-powered spinning factories. Eventually, Americans surpassed British with their interchangeable parts and improvements in transportation, which began with the steamboat and the railroad. This transport led to migration from the farms to the factories, where factory owners employed entire families, especially since women and children were cheap labor. In the US, this industrialization led to better diets, more clothing, but not social mobility.
  25. industrialization in other areas
    Aside from the Continent, Britain, and the US, not much industrialization took place in other areas. For example, Russia remained largely rural and depended still on serfdom. India’s industries were undermined by the British imports, since British wanted only their exportation of raw materials while buying their goods.
  26. Industrialization
                Industrialization had the same effects all over, which enabled it to continue growing. There was an increase in food supply and shortages of famines, epidemics, and war, leading to an increase in population, which enabled an increase in the amount of workers provided for industries. Still, some unindustrialized areas, such as Ireland, experienced great trouble due to the increase in population; this was the case especially when blight struck the tomatoes and led to the Great Hunger, causing large masses of people to migrate to America.
  27. Contribution: cities
                The Industrial Revolution contributed to changing dynamics because, first, it led to the growth of cities for manufacturing and industry. Furthermore, factory workers were brought to the city to enable easier access to the machines and prevent intolerable actions, such as tardiness.
  28. Class
    In terms of class, although it was believed that the standards of living were improving, this was not the case for everyone. While the wealthy, middle-class inhabitants insulated themselves and the lower middle-class still lived pretty decent lives, the working class was stuck in row houses that were overcrowded; the atmosphere was smoggy, sanitary conditions were appalling, causing the city to smell horrible; and deaths outnumbered births. 
  29. Food was adulterated
    Furthermore, food was adulterated, such as using alum to make bread look white and more expensive. Young, working class men were shorter and scrawnier than the average middle-class child; and prostitution and crime were regular ways of life. Urban reformers sprang up, such as James Kay-Shuttleworth, who described it as “volcanic,” and Edwin Chadwick, who wanted to eliminate poverty and squalor of the metropolitan areas through a system of modern sanitary reforms. 
  30. new middle class
    Another effect of the Industrial revolution was the development of a new middle class that would eventually conflict with the upper class as they tried to push their way into the aristocratic class. Bourgeois was transformed into men of commerce, industry, as well as professionals like lawyers. They constructed the factories and raised capital, determined markets, etc. 
  31. dependence on religion
    Furthermore, due to exclusion from public office in the first phase of the war, they were greatly dependent on religion. These people eventually became a new business aristocracy, playing an important role alongside the traditional landed elites, and eventually merging.
  32. gap
                In terms of class, there was a widening gap between the rich and the poor. The wealthiest 1% of the population held a majority of the land. Wages and prices fluctuated until the 1840s, when they finally improved. Consumption of tea, sugar, and coffee was by the upper and middle classes. Economic depressions brought high unemployment and depressions.
  33. new working class
    One last development was this new working class. This class was largely disadvantaged. Although they were getting paid great wages, they were also being taken advantage of; working twelve to sixteen hour shifts for six days a week with a half an hour lunch break and barely any pay. Men in coal mines were also deformed with ruined lungs
  34. women and children
    Women and children were exploited, being paid less than men and working in just as terrible conditions. Children were treated harshly, receiving beatings for discipline. Although the British tried to improve conditions with the Poor Law Act and other forms of legislation, workers themselves tried to enact reform through trade unions, which were to protect the workers position and gain benefits.  
  35. strikes
    While some held strikes, such as Robert Owens’s Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, others attacked machines, such as the Luddites, and still others petitioned to Parliament, but were largely ignored, such as the Chartists. Governments eventually passed laws forbidding child labor under nine, stipulating that children should be educated, and fining those who broke the law. Women were too included in a ten-hour limit. 
  36. Second IR development
    How did the Second Industrial Revolution develop? It occurred in the same manner as the first—rapid progression. In the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, Germany was slowly surpassing Britain on its way to becoming a great power. Although Britain continued its steady progression, such as replacing hand looms with power looms, the Continental industries were still behind. 
  37. Continent steam engine
    However, in the mid-nineteenth century, the Continent used the steam engine to power their textile and mining. Waterways were opened up, allowing free trade. Joint-stock investment banks were crucial to industries to promote railway construction, etc.
  38. Germany surpassed Britain
    Eventually, Germany surpassed Britain and was the leader of the Industrial world. Why did this occur? It was because their entry late into the Revolution allowed the creation of the most recent and best machines, while Britain was stuck with the old machines. Furthermore, their entrepreneurs did not mind ‘risking it all’ for the chance of money; meanwhile, British entrepreneurs were chained by their distrust in others and suspicioun of innovations. Lastly, Germany was accustomed to change; the british weren’t and even discouraged scientific and technical education.
  39. New products
    In terms of new products, the shift from iron to steel allowed faster machines, ships, etc. Chemicals were being produced; electricity developed, which was a new source of energy that ccould be converted into other forms of energy, leading to generators. Items such as the telephone, radio waves by Guglielmo Marconi were created, etc. An internal combustion engine was produced, but was very effective only when petroleum was used to power it; it was incorporated into cars and airplanes.
  40. New markets
    New markets also were created since the best foreign markets were already heavily saturated. National incomes increased with the population increases. The prices of both food and manufactured goods declined due to lower transportation costs. Protective tariffs and cartels were being created todecrease both external and internal competition, respectively. 
  41. Larger factories
    • Larger factories were made possible in the fields of iron and steel, electricity, chemistry, etc, increasing the number of working people, leading to a greater demand for efficiency and a better economy. As a result of this, they cut labor costs and used interchangeable parts instead of a variety of people ot create goods.
    •             This second Industrial revolution still possessed depressions, recessions, and crises; but, overall, from 1895 to WWI, Europe experienced an economic boom.
  42. art and scinece
    Another effect of the Industrial Revolution was its effect on art and science. As people began to see industrial technology, they began researching and making scientific discoveries in thermodynamics, biology, chemistry, and even in electricity, as Michael faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and created a generator. 
  43. Materialism
    Materialism also began to develop as the belief that everything mental, spiritual, and ideal was a result of physical forces. Darwin’s theory of evolution sprang up, causing uncertainties. Health care was advanced through Pasteur and others, as surgeons now used anesthetics and prevented postoperative diseases. Medical schools were created; and people such as Comte began to study society. Not only that, but also agriculture developed new patterns, lower transportation costs, and farm commodities to plummet, affecting the small farming population.
  44. Another contribution
    Another contribution to changing dynamics was the division of Europe into economic zones with areas, such as Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, etc. being industrialized, and areas such as Russia being greatly behind. Eventually, however, Russia and even Japan increased their industries, with Japan becoming a leader in promoting industry. This era also saw the development of a world economy as transportation allowed goods from all the way around the world to be imported.
  45. Women
    Dynamics of society were also affected by the Second Industrial Revolution through women, who since no longer able to work in the heavy industrial work field, began to engage in white-collar jobs, such as clerks, secretaries, etc. Although boring, it allowed them opportunities to escape the lower-class world and gave them freedom from domesticity. Prostitution still was a factor of society; and society even regulated it at some points.
  46. Marx and Engels
    In the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, cries were beginning to be heard between this new working class and the ruling middle class of entrepreneurs. Two men who came forth were Marx and Engels, whose The Communist Manifesto urged “working men of all countries—UNITE.” Despite his claims that the oppressed oppose the oppressors and that eventually, the working proletariats would overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a classless society, he was wrong and it did not happen. In reality, the working class wanted more capital, not the abolishment of it. As a result, his book, as well as his attempts to organize the working class was all failures.
  47. Split in Marxism
    At one point, there was even a split developed due to Marxism by revisionists, who believed that Marx had it all wrong and the middle class was actually expanding and the proletariats weren’t sinking lower (Bernstein) and encouraged formation of political parties. Nationalism also proved a strong factor in society, which would eventually contribute to WWI. 
  48. Trade unions
    • Trade unions were formed to better society, where they made progress in bettering the live and working condition of the laborers. Anarchism also developed due to those who believed that true freedom could only be achieved through violence.
    •             Nevertheless, socialist parties developed, such as the German Social Democratic Party by Bebel and Liebknecht, who wanted improved conditions for the working class, and the Marxist Social Democratic Labor Party in Russia.
  49. Mass society
    Lastly, one more change in dynamics was the change into a mass society. The population grew, leading to great emigration since, although there were surpluses, there was not enough food to feed a booming population. Urbanization occurred, increasing the number of urban workers due to migration from rural areas to cities. 
  50. Living conditions
    Living conditions were improved in the second industrial revolution as people such as Edwin Chadwick and Rudolf Virchow and Solomon Neumann emphasized the terrible diseases, causing legislative acts to be in place, such as inspections of housing and the restrictions of housing being built without proper running water. Sewers were also created; and, terrible housing conditions were replaced with the idea of building nicer houses to charge rents for more money.
  51. Redesigns
    The cities were redesigned with broad streets for both looks and greater transport of military if needed. The upper class was now involved with plutocrats, the wealthy businessmen, who merged with them due to their buying of properties and marriages to daughters of tycoons. Although the middle class was a hierarchy, there were overall improvements. The white-collar workers inserted themselves in the space between the lower middle class and the lower class. 
  52. Same ideas
    They all shared the same ideas as middle class people and preached it to children and lower classes. The lower class even improved in some areas through better living conditions, rises in real wages, and the ability to buy more than food and clothes. This was due to the mass consumption, which allowed the purchase of many new things, mass education, which decreased literacy rates, and mass leisure, which enabled people to go to events, such as amusements parks, and engage in tourism, cheer on sports teams, and engage in morally improving activities such as Boy Scouts.
  53. One last chagne
                The dynamics of society were completely changed. One last change was the difference between the middle class and the lower class. Whereas the middle class women had servants, they also had to work but maintain the façade that they did not, making it hard on them. Working class women and children as well were accustomed to work already.
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Essay Two: Industrial Revolution
2013-03-30 13:39:08
HON 122

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