Essay Three: 1817-1871

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  1. Intro
    The periods of 1815-1850 and 1850-1871, despite close proximity, are periods of great change. They contrast in such areas as politics, economy, cultural, and intellectual affairs. Furthermore, these changes greatly contributed to the changing dynamics of the century and also began to set the stage for WWI.
  2. Contrast of eras
    In terms of politics, these two eras contrast greatly. Whereas, 1815, a conservative order was reestablished throughout Europe at the Congress of Vienna, which made peace at the end of the Napoleonic wars and tried to restore Europe’s “legitimate” rulers, in 1850-1870, the national state became the focus of people’s loyalty, and the nations of Europe spent their energies in achieving unification.
  3. Contrast based on rulers
    1815 saw the attempt of rulers to bring back antiquity, with the restoration of several monarchs, while 1850 was not so concerned with liberalism and nationalism, but with the reality of things, called Realpolitik, which in a way showed how nationalism and liberalism can be used to increase a ruler’s authority. Within the political aspects of the eras, there are numerous subdivisions. Lastly, in politics, from 1815-1850, the period was unstable and tumultuous, with numerous accomplishments followed by great failures of monarchs. It all began with the Congress of Vienna.
  4. Congress of Vienna
    Probably the biggest event that occurred between 1815 and 1850 was the Congress of Vienna. This was due to the four major enemies of Napoleon—Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia—and their desire to remain united to ensure peace, creating the Quadruple Alliance. The leader of the Congress was Prince Klemens von Metternich, who was guided by the so-called “principle of legitimacy,” which was an attempt to restore the monarchs to the thrones, such as in France and Spain.
  5. New balance of power
    Furthermore, they instituted a new balance of power that would prevent domination of one country over another. This was done by land expansion and strengthening of other powers. Furthermore, to prevent the French domination, which had not been weakened, they decreased its size and established territories around it to prevent its expansion. Even though the Congress was at first delayed due to Napoleon’s escape, they still managed to create an order that avoided conflict for almost a century.
  6. peace arrangements
    The peace arrangements arrived at the Congress were the ideas of conservatism, which was the idea of both Edmund Burke (who stated in his Reflections on the Revolution in France, that society was a state and no one generation has the right to destroy it; he advised against the violent overthrow of the government) and Joseph de Maistre (c. 1750-1821), who espoused authoritarian conservatism. Basically, conservatives favored obedience to political authority, organized religion, hated revolution, etc.
  7. Congess of Vienna--> fear
    Even though the Congress of Vienna was instituted, fear led to the Concert of Europe for the Quadruple Alliance, which became the Quintuple Alliance after adding France at the First Congress at Aix-la-Chapele. The other three, however, were hostile, due to Metternich’s principle of intervention that was opposed by Britain, but still led to interference in the affairs of Italy. Although the principle of intervention was successful, this decision led to the break-up of the Concert of Europe and the beginning of an era of numerous revolutions.
  8. Revolts in Latin America
    Several revolts during this time period occurred due to reactions to the forceful action of the Congress of Vienna. One revolt in Latin America occurred due to enlightenment and new political ideals stemming from successful revolution in North America. As a result, inhabitants of Latin America who were educated in European universities, such as Simon Bolivar (circa 1780-1830) and Jose de San Martin (c. 1770-1850) became leaders of the independence movement. Bolivar, who witnessed the coronation of Napoleon, wanted to be liberator of Venezuela and achieved that liberation in 1821. 
  9. Jose de San Martin
    Jose de San Martin, though not freeing his country, wanted to revolt Spaniards completely. Defeating the troops at the Battle of Chacabuco in 1817 and later passing over the mission to Bolivar, the Central American states became independent. Although the Continental powers attempted to restore Spanish control, The British prevented this through their naval power, and later wound up dominating the area’s economy by forcing them to buy their goods and exporting raw materials. Although they achieved liberty, they were back to traditional orders.
  10. Due to Congress of Vienna
    Due to the Congress of Vienna, there was great reform and revolt. These leaders would not have been able to stand on their own had it not been for the principle of intervention and the abilities of Metternich and other great powers to restore order. For example, the Greek revolt was a success in the eyes of those of the conservatives, whose support of the Greek against the Ottomans, led to the defeat of the Ottoman armada in 1827. Later, Russia declared war on the Ottomans and acquired provinces. Greece was left in the hands of France, Russia, and Britain. 
  11. Great Britain
    In terms of Great Britain, although in 1815, the aristocrats held numerous seats in Parliament, two new factions—the Tories and the Whigs—enacted change, with the Tories dominating. They responded to economical difficulties by creating the Corn Law, imposing high tariffs on foreign grain, causing hardships on workers, who revolted, leading to the Peterloo Massacre. At least the Tories managed to avoid meeting demands for electoral reforms.
  12. Revolution in France
    Revolution also occurred in France. After Louis XVIII was restored to the throne, he thought that, by accepting reform, he would cause stability in his country. However, it only led to people questioning his motives, such as ultraroyalists who criticized his resignation to reform, and liberals who wanted a mile after being given a yard. When he died, Charles X came into power and was favored by ultraroyalists as he granted them indemnity, reestablished catholic control over the French educational system, etc.
  13. Italy and Spain
    In Italy, which was under Austrian domination, all the states had reactionary governments, eager to smother liberal and nationalist sentiment. Spain had restored Ferdinand VII to the throne, which although instituting a liberal legislature, eventually reneged and persecuted members of the Cortes. Although revolt occurred, Metternich saved Spain and restored him to his throne.
  14. Metternich
    Metternich managed to retain power on his own through his spies and centralization of monarchies. Furthermore, the Germanic Confederation as used to repress revolutionary movements with the German states.
  15. Prussia
    In Prussia, King Frederick William III instituted reforms (abolished serfdom, self-government, etc), but eventually grew reactionary and followed Metternich’s lead. This led to the development of the Burschenschaften, a group of students who wanted a free Germany. Due to their highly radical activities, such as assassination, Metternich drew up the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819, closing the Burschenschaften, and remaining the conservative status quo
  16. Russia
    • Russia was also autocratic. However, Alexander I attempted to make reforms, through relaxing censorship and reforming education, but not freeing the serfs. However, due to Napoleon’s defeat, he grew reactionary and his death led to Constantine, who abdicated for his brother Nicholas, who was revolted against, transforming Nicholas I into a reactionary, instituting police in the area.
    • Still, rebellion managed to occur despite these reactionaries’ attempts to maintaining conservatism due to the growing nationalism and liberalism.
  17. Rebellion: France
    In France, when Charles X dismissed the legislature and censored the press in his July Ordinances after their protests due to his violation of ministerial responsibility, the July Revolution was born. Charles X fled as liberals took over and instituted Louis-Philippe as ruler of a new bourgeoisie monarch. However, even this man led to more division as the middle class was now divided between the upper, who felt that they had achieved their aim, and the lower, who were still banned from voting.
  18. Two groups emerged
    Two groups eventually emerged, the Party of Movement and the Party of Resistance, who was content with changes. Eventually, France was pushed over the edge in 1848 when, after a severe depression, radical republicans held banquets and revolted, causing Louis-Philippe to flee to Britain. Still, division occurred between the republicans—moderate and radical—with the moderates gaining power and a new constitution being instituted that established the Second Republic under Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte.
  19. Other outbursts
    Other revolutionary outbursts occurred in Belgium, Poland and Italy due to nationalism and the merger of Catholic Belgium into the Protestant Dutch Republic by the Congress of Vienna. It led to Belgian revolt and independence. In Italy and Poland, they failed, as Metternich saved the three Italian states and Poland.
  20. Germanic states
    In the Germanic states, King Frederick William IV tried to institute reform, which resulted in the Frankfurt Assembly, dominated by middle-class delegates. They were divided over whether to include Austria or not; and, even when Austria left the withdrew, Frederick William IV refused to be emperor of the Germans, and the Frankfurt Assembly was a failure.
  21. Austria
    Austria also experienced troubles with their nationalities. Although Hungary was granted its wish of its own legislature and army, when the Czechs demanded the same thing, they were crushed by General Alfred Windischgratz; and, later, the rebels had been crushed. Still, although Francis Joseph attempted to bring Hungary back under his power, he could not defeat Louis Kossuth, a Hungarian liberal, and his army until a Russian army crushed them and an autocratic government was restored.
  22. Revolt
    Lastly, revolt occurred in the Italian states when the failure of their first revolutions led Giuseppe Mazzini to create a united Italian republic. They were almost fulfilled, but when the Italian states rose up, ruler after ruler granted constitutions to his people, hindering unity. Furthermore, the desire to revolt against the Austrian overlords was a great failure that just led to greater Austrian domination.
  23. Britain
    Despite the revolutions, Britain was largely stable as the Whigs, now in power, realized the demands could not be ignored for long. As a result, they created the Reform Act of 1832, benefiting the upper middle class by involving them in politics. They also attempted to get the poor to want to work through the creation of terrible conditions in workhouses through the Poor Law of 1834. Lastly, repeal of the Corn Law saved Britain from major crisis.
  24. Unlike 1815-1850
    Unlike 1815-1850, the 1850s-1870s were a period of great unification and reform, rather than revolt. 1850 brought a new generation of conservative leaders to power. First was Louis Napoleon, who used both liberal and nationalistic goals to further his aim. Although he tried to appeal to the people for his power, he eventually just seized power, becoming Napoleon III of the Second Empire.
  25. Napoleon
    Napoleon, unlike Louis XVIII controlled armed forces, police, legislation, and could declare war. His domestic policies were a success. He stimulated the construction of roads, railroads, and canals, and under Baron Haussmann reconstructed all of Paris to become an area of broad boulevards, plazas, etc. He also liberalized the regime, reaching out to the working class through granting unions and strikes, allowed candidates to campaign, and allowed the Legislative Corps more say in government. In terms of his foreign policy, however, he was not so successful in his Mexican adventure when he left his troops there and an emperor with no backup (executed) and the Crimean war, where he defeated Russia. However, in the Franco-Prussian, he underestimated the Prussian’s power and was defeated.
  26. Unlike revolutions
    Unlike revolutions, this was also an era of war rather than revolution. For example, the Crimean War occurred. It was due to the Ottoman Empire declining and leaving Europeans to take an interest in the territory. Russia was the closest in proximity to the Ottomans; and, other nations feared how Russia’s power would upset the balance. 
  27. Crimean War
    This war, although caused by Russians demands to occupy Christina shrines in Palestine, and later, seized two territories, causing Ottomans to declare war. France and Britain later declared war due to the potential threat Russia played. Russians also had no allies since Austria remained neutral. By the end, the Crimean War led to the break-up of the Quadruple Alliance and the withdrawal of Britain and Russia from foreign affairs; Austria had no friends. This was another difference between politics. Whereas the 1815s brought together the great powers, the 1850s saw the end of old alliances and the beginning of new.
  28. Attempts at unity: Italy
    This era was also occupied by massive attempts at unity. First, the Italian unification was focused on the state of Piedmont, which was defeated by the Austrians. Still, the leadership of one man, Count Camillo di Cavour (who favored a constitutional government) wanted unification and, first began with economic improvements through roads and canals, and later used the money for an army. Using the assistance of France, he waged war against the Austrians. However, after the French defeated the Austrians, they made peace since they saw the longevity of the struggle. However, due to nationalists taking over Italian states, they agreed to join Piedmont. 
  29. Southern Italy
    In Southern Italy, a new leader Giuseppe Garibaldi raised an army and landed in Sicily, where a revolt broke out. His success greatly worried Cavour, who thought Garibaldi would cause a war with France. This led Garibaldi to yield to Cavour, and Italy was proclaimed a new kingdom under the control of Piedmont and King Victor Emmanuel II. The task wasn’t complete, however, until Prussia indirectly gave Italy the last two territories: Venice when they defeated Austria, and Rome, in the Franco-Prussian war, when France removed their troops.
  30. Unification: Germany
    Germany was also undergoing unification. At first, it failed and Germans looked to Austria and Prussia as the only two states to dominate German affairs. Their inclination to Prussia occurred after Prussia created a customs union called the Zollverien; several German states, except Austria, joined it. Later, Prussia created a constitution that appeared to create a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature with the lower house elected by universal male suffrage. 
  31. Voting population
    The voting population, however, allowed domination by the rising middle class. Still, the king was too strong and hindered their domination. When Frederick William IV died and King William I had ideas about expanding the Prussian army, people did not want him in power. Therefore, he brought Bismarck into power.
  32. Bismarck
    It was Bismarck, another capable leader that really brought unification of Germany and Prussia. He was a great symbol of Realpolitik who only waged war when the odds were in favor. In the three wars he waged, he managed to isolate the opponent and gain the upper hand. For example, in the Danish War, which arose when Schleswig and Holstein were taken by the Danish government, Bismarck allied with Austria to conquer the Danes, winning and dividing the territory.
  33. Desire for more power
    However, his desire for more power led him to isolate Austria and gain the promise of other powers not to interfere if a war were to occur between Austria and Prussia. Once gaining France and Italy and excluding Russia, he defeated the Austrians and excluded them from German affairs. The last war he waged was due to his knowledge of how France would be largely discontent with the expansion of Germany. 
  34. French revenge
    Furthermore, France wanted revenge. After the dispute over the Spanish throne and the withdrawal of the Prussian candidate, the French overstepped their boundaries. After sending a letter to make King William I apologize to them, Bismarck tampered with the letter, causing France to declare war. The French, however, were easily defeated, forced to give up Alsace and Lorraine; and King William, in Versailles, was named “king.”
  35. Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary also achieved unification. The Habsburg freed the serfs and established centralized autocracy. Under Alexander von Bach, local privileges were subordinated to a unified system by German officials. Hungary was also subject to this. After Austria’s defeat in the Italian war in 1859, however, Emperor Francis Joseph established an imperial parliament, which was supposed to represent nationalities, but only angered the Hungarians. Eventually, the Austrians negotiated the Ausgleich of 1867, giving Hungary its own legislature, government, and capital. The only connection to it would be Francis Joseph as king of Hungary and emperor of Austria. It didn’t satisfy other nationalities, but ensured happiness of the larger nationality, Hungarians.
  36. Russia
    Russia, at this time, unlike in the past, greatly needed to increase their progression as they were far behind due to serfdom. As a result, serfs were freed, though not really free, since they purchased land and answered to the village commune, which was responsible for the land payments to the government. Alexander II of Russia also created zemstvos or local assemblies that were to represent self-government. This led to the desire for these zemstvos to rule on their own by liberals; and this desire led to opposition from both sides. 
  37. Russian conservatives
    Conservatives opposed tsarist attempts, while reformers wanted rapid change. This led to Alexander Herzen forming a movement called populism, which was to create a new society through radical acts of the peasants. However, peasants did not care; and, it was left to populists to resort to violent means, such as Vera Zasulich, who shot a governor and was acquitted. Alexander II was also a victim, causing his son, to repress any more reform.
  38. Britain
    Great Britain also experienced change. Although they weren’t in great turmoil in 1815-1850, they had improvements to the working classes in terms of rise in wages and economic growth. Still, there was underlying tension as people, such as Henry John Temple, tried to make political compromise. After his death, the movement for the extension of the franchise intensified. Even though the Whigs passed the first Reform Act, it was the Tories who caused the formation of the second Reform Act of 1867 under leader Benjamin Disraeli. This lowered requirements for voting and brought about Liberal victories. He also opened civil service positions to exams, introduced the secret ballot, and made elementary schools available to kids.
  39. Reform
    Essentially, this era was dominated by reform. Although they compared to one another in terms of stability, the greatest area of comparison is in the dominating feelings of liberalism, nationalism, conservatism, and socialism. Although developed from 1815 to 1830 due to the Enlightenment, Industrial, Scientific, and French Revolution, liberalism became dominant. In terms of the economy, economic liberalism believed in laissez-faire and the elimination of the government in the economy.
  40. Political liberalism
    Political liberalism also was another area of liberalism that wanted protection of civil liberties and equality before the law, freedom of assembly, speech, etc. In the 1810s, liberalists were largely disadvantaged, facing numerous difficulties. In 1850-1871, these ideas were also running rampant throughout Europe and contributed to the growing discontent of conservatives. 
  41. Conservatism
    Conservatism was also dominant in both the eras, but in the 1850s, it was weakening in the face of nationalism, which arose out of awareness of being part of a community with common customs and traditions. Nationalism developed from the French Revolution; and, just like liberalism, in the 1850s, it strengthened, especially in areas such as the Austrian-Hungarian empire, which were dominated by nationalities wanting to break free. 
  42. Triumph of Nationalism
    . Its triumph came after 1850, leading to political transformations. However, in the 1850-1871 era, it greatly separated from liberalism. Although intended to unite people, nationalism divided people even more as they began to pull closer to their states.
  43. Socialism
    Lastly, socialism also developed as people began to notice the terrible conditions of the slums and wanted equality in social conditions, such as Fourier, who wanted phalansteries, Owen, who created communities, and Blanc, who desired workshops to help the people. These are the similarities and differences in the Political aspects. 
  44. Economical
    In terms of economical, aside from the Industrial Revolution, which developed greatly within both eras, especially in the second half (1850-1910), new developments such as steel, electricity, petroleum, etc. were prevailing. The political aspects also affected the economy. For example, in the 1815-1850 era, due to the numerous amounts of revolts, new police forces in France, Britain, and, then, later Germany (Schutzmannschaft) were created to, not only prevent crime, but also protect and clean up after the individuals. 
  45. Combating crime
    Other ways to combat crime were believed to be possible through creating Sunday schools and institutes to instruct the working classes in the applied sciences to make them more useful in society. Not only that, but capital punishment was beginning to be looked down upon and, as a result, prisons were instituted based on the models of the United States.
  46. 1850-1871 in terms of reform
    In the 1850-1871 period, due to stability, there was not much reform in terms of police or prisons, but reforms to compromise with the people. Reforms took place under the leaders, such as Alexander II in Russia, Francis Joseph, and many others, and the Reform Act of 1867. This time period saw economic change through Marx and Engels, whose The Communist Manifesto attempted to incite working classes to bring about a classless society through the overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariats. They were responding to the capitalism that was occurring due to the Industrial Revolution. 
  47. Pasteur
    Other reforms in terms of economics was Pasteur’s Germ theory, that led to pasteurization and preventive medical practice as opposed to treatment, such as in terms of postoperative infections and new surgical practices, such as the use of anesthesias. There were also steps taken to ensure greater health care, such as a prebacteriological hygiene movement and less crowded housing conditions.
  48. Culturally
    Culturally, the difference between the two eras was romanticism versus realism. Romanticism was characterized by emotion, sentiment and inner feelings. People rejected the idea that nature can be known and praised the mysterious aspects of nature. It led to individualism as people began to express themselves and their feelings through such things as long hair and scruffy looks. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a Romantic writer who wrote Sorrows of the Young Werther, conveying deep feelings of love and despair. 
  49. Thomas Carlyle
    Thomas Carlyle was a man who believed history was determined by the character of the people, leading to the Great Man Theory.  One more was Walter Scott, who wrote Ivanhoe. Romanticism was a call to old times, such as through Greek architecture and old tales. Romantic poets expressed their love for nature, such as Lord Byron and criticized science for exploiting nature. 
  50. Art
    Art rejected the principles of Classicism and wanted warmth, emotion, and movement. Caspar David Freidrick was one who was fascinated with God and nature. Joseph Malford William Turner was a Romantic painter obsessed with watercolors and landscapes. He allowed moods to be conveyed through interplay of light and color. Lastly, Delacroix was obsessed with color and the exotic
  51. Romantic music
    . In music, romanticism was dominated by Beethoven, who abandoned Mozart's way of producing, and created uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifted resolutions. Hector Berlioz also demonstrated program music through his Symphonie fantastique. Religion was also revived as people looked to it for unity.
  52. Realism
    Realism in the 1850s was completely different. They wanted to view the world in realistic terms and rejected Romanticism. They liked the ordinary characters from real life. For example, Gustave Flaubert created Madame Bovary to convey real life. Furthermore, William Thackerey wrote Vanity Fair, which was the prototypical novel for realists. 
  53. Realists' art
    Realists’ art conveyed everyday scenes, whether of factory workers, peasants, etc. Gustave Courbet was one of the Realists painters. Millet was another painter who wanted to capture scenes from rural life. Music was furthered by Liszt and the new German School. They ushered in performances through piano recitals and the symphonic poem. Wagner, one more composer, believed opera was the best form of expression and transformed the opera into music drama.
  54. Intellectual differences
    Lastly, intellectual differences arose. In the 1815-1850 era, people like Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo sprang up. These men greatly contributed to the ideas of Darwin, who would dominate the era of 1850-1871, with his ideas of evolution. Malthus believed that people increase quicker than the food supply, resulting in overpopulation and starvation. 
  55. David Ricardo
    Ricardo believed that increasing population leads to more workers, falling wages, misery and starvation and reduction in population, causing working numbers to decline, wages to rise, and workers to have larger populations again. These contributed to Darwin who used it to apply to animals and their struggle for existence due to natural selection. The last intellectual movements in the 1850s and 1870s were new medical schools, which prevented girls at first, but then eventually were formed just for girls, and the social sciences, emphasized by Comte.
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Essay Three: 1817-1871
2013-03-30 14:13:44
HON 122

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