Oceanography Chapters 9-11

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Oceanography Chapters 9-11
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2013-03-31 22:40:24
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Oceanography Chapters 9-11
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  1. Amphidromic Point
    • A no-tide point in the ocean or sea around which the crest of the tide waves rotates during one tidal period
    • Essentially no tidal range
  2. Aphelion
    • Earth is most distant from the Sun
    • Tidal ranges are smallest
  3. Apogee
    • Moon is farthest from Earth
    • Tidal ranges are smallest
  4. Barycenter
    • A common center of mass
    • The balance point that the Earth and moon rotate around
  5. Bay of Fundy
    • Example of a location with standing waves
    • Maximum tidal range 17 m (56 ft)
    • Has largest tidal range in the world
  6. Centripedal Force
    • Required to keep planets in their orbits
    • Provided by the gravitational attraction between each of the planets and the Sun
    • Connects an orbiting body to its parent (pulling the object inward toward the parent)
  7. Cotidal Line
    • A line connecting points where high tide occurs simultaneously
  8. Declination
    The angular distance of the Sun or Moon above or below Earth's equatorial plane
  9. Diurnal Tidal Pattern
    One low and one high tide each lunar day
  10. Ebb Current
    • Produced when water drains out of a bay (or river) because low tide is approaching
  11. Ebb Tide
    • Aka: Low Tide
    • Seawater moves offshore
  12. Ecliptic
    The imaginary plane on which Earth revolves around the Sun along an invisible ellipse in space
  13. Flood Current
    • Produced when water rushes into a bay (or river) with an incoming high tide
  14. Flood Tide
    • Aka: High Tide
    • Seawater moves on shore
  15. Full Moon
    • When the moon is on the side of Earth, opposite the Sun
    • The entire disk is brightly visible
  16. Gravitational Force
    • ⋄Derived from Newton's Law of Universal Gravitational
    • ⋄Every object that has a mass in the universe is attracted to every other object
    • ⋄Directly proportional to the product of the masses of the two bodies. Inversely proportional to to the square of the distance between the two masses.
    • ⋄Mass ↑ = Gravitation Force ↑
    • ⋄Mass ↓ = Gravitation Force ↓
  17. High Slack Water
    Occurs at the peak of each high tide
  18. Low Slack Water
    Occurs at the peak of each low tide
  19. Lunar Bulges
    • The two tidal bulges (on an ideal Earth)
    • One facing toward the moon
    • One facing away from the moon
  20. Lunar Day
    • Aka: Tidal day
    • Measured from the time the Moon is on the meridian of an observer (directly overhead) to the next time the Sun is on that meridian
    • 24 hours
  21. Mixed Tidal Pattern
    • Two high tides/two low tides per day
    • Tidal range different
    • Most common
  22. Nadir
    • The point farthest from the moon
    • Has the weakest gravitational attaraction
    • Point N
  23. Neap Tide
    • Minimum Tidal Range
    • Tidal range is small because there is destructive interference between the lunar and solar todal bulges
    • The moon is said to be in quadrature
    • Time between neap tides is 1/2 the monthly lunar cycle (apprx. 2 weeks)
  24. New Moon
    • When the moon is between the Earth and the Sun
    • Cannot be seen at night
  25. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
    Every object that has a mass in the universe is attracted to every other object
  26. Perigee
    • Moon is closest to Earth
    • Tidal ranges are largest
  27. Perihelion
    • Earth is closest to the Sun
    • Tidal ranges are largest
  28. Proxigean
    • "Closest of the close moon" tides
    • Occur when the Spring Tides and Perigee occur simultaneously
    • Tidal range especially large
    • Often results in the flooding of low-lying coastal areas
  29. Quadrature
  30. Quarter Moon
    • A moon that is half lit and half dark as viewed from Earth
    • Occurs when the Moon is at right angles to the Sun relative to Earth
  31. Resultant Force
    • Difference between centripetal and gravitational forces
  32. Reversing Current
  33. Rotary Current
  34. Semidiurnal Tidal Pattern
    Two high tides/two low tides per day
  35. Solar Bulges
    • Sun produced
    • Bulges on opposite sides of the Earth
    • One facing toward the Sun
    • One facing away from the Sun
    • Much smaller than Lunar Bulges
  36. Solar Day
    • Measured from the time the Sun is on the meridian to the next time the Sun in on that meridian
    • 24 hours
  37. Spring Tide
    • Maximum Tidal Range
    • Tide is extremely large
    • Time between spring tides is 1/2 the monthly lunar cycle (apprx. 2 weeks)
  38. Syzygy
    What the moon is said to be in when the Earth-Moon-Sun system is aligned
  39. Tidal Bore
    • A wall of water that moves up certain low-lying rivers due to an incoming tide
  40. Tidal Period
    The time between high tides

    12 hours

    The farther up north you go, the tidal period remains the same but the tides are not as high
  41. Tidal Range
    The vertical difference between high and low tides

    • Maximum = Spring Tide
    • Minimum = Neap Tide

    • Greatest = Perihelion/Perigee
    • Least = Aphelion/Apogee
  42. Tides
    • The periodic raising and lowering of sea level that occurs daily throughout the ocean
    • Very long and regular shallow-water waves
    • Caused by gravitational attraction of Sun, Moon, and Earth
  43. Tide-Generating Force
    • Created by tidal bulges
    • Quite small
    • Reach their maximum value at points on Earth at 45 degrees latitude between the zenith and nadir
  44. Waning Crescent
    Between 3rd Quarter and New
  45. Waning Gibbous
    Between Full and 3rd Quarter
  46. Waxing Cresent
    Between New and 1st Quarter
  47. Waxing Gibbous
    Between 1st Quarter and Full
  48. Whirlpool
    • Rapidly spinning seawater
    • Aka: vortex
    • Commonly occur in restricted channels connecting two basins with different tidal cycles
  49. Zenith
    • The point closest to the moon
    • Has the greatest gravitational attaraction
    • Point Z

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