Rapid Review: Lab Findings

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Rapid Review: Lab Findings
2013-03-30 16:29:42

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  1. Anticentromere antibodies
    Scleroderma (CREST)
  2. Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
    Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
  3. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
    Goodpasture's Syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)
  4. Antihistone antibodies
    • Drug-induced SLE
    • -hydralazine
    • -isoniazid
    • -phenytoin
    • -procainamide
  5. Anti-IgG antibodies
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  6. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)
    • Primary biliary cirrhosis
    • -female
    • -cholestasis
    • -portal HTN
  7. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
    • c-ANCA: Wegener's
    • p-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss
  8. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-smith, anti-dsDNA)
    SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
  9. Antiplatelet antibodies
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  10. Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
    diffuse systemic scleroderma
  11. Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies
    Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
  12. "Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray
    Colorectal cancer (usually L-sided)
  13. Azurophilic peroxidase-positive granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts
    • Auer rods
    • -AML, especially M3 type
  14. Bacitracin response
    • Sensitive: Group A strep (s. pyogenes)
    • Resistant: Group B strep (s. agalactiae)
  15. "Bamboo spine" on x-ray
    Ankylosing Spondylitis
  16. Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
    -Howell-Jolly bodies (splenectomy or non-functional spleen)
  17. Bloody tap on LP
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  18. "Boot shaped" heart on x-ray
    • -tetrology of fallot
    • -RVH
  19. Branching GP rods with sulfur granules
    Actinomyces israelii
  20. Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging
    • Pancoast tumor
    • -can cause Horner's syndrome
  21. "Brown" tumor of bone
    • -Hyperparathyroidism
    • -Osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)
  22. Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
    Chagas' disease
  23. Cellular crescents in Bowman's Capsule
    Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
  24. "Chocolate cyst" of ovary
    Endometriosis (frequently bilateral)
  25. Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
    • Homer-Wright rosettes
    • -neuroblastoma
    • -medulloblastoma
    • -retinoblastoma
  26. Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
  27. Decreased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
    Down Syndrome or other chromosomal anomalies
  28. Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
    • -Tabes Dorsalis (tertiary syphilis)
    • -Subacute combined degeneration
  29. Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
    Parkinosn's Disease
  30. Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
    Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma, can result in whirled mucus plugs)
  31. Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophlic fluid
    Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
  32. Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
    Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
  33. Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
    Owl's eye appearance of CMV
  34. Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei
    "Orphan Annie eyes" nuclei (papillary carcinoma of thyroid)
  35. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
    Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)
  36. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
    Lewy body (Parkinson's Disease)
  37. Eosinophilic globule in liver
    Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
  38. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
    Negri body (rabies)
  39. Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
    Senile plaques (alzheimer's)
  40. Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")
    Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
  41. Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
    Schiller-Duval bodies (Yolk Sac Tumor)
  42. "Hair on end" (crew-cut) appearance on X-ray
    • -Beta Thalassemia
    • -SCA

    (marrow expansion)
  43. hCG elevated
    • -Choriocarcinoma
    • -hydatidiform mole
  44. Heart nodules (granulomatous)
    Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
  45. Heterphile antibodies
    Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
  46. Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
    Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
  47. High levels of D-dimers
    • -DVT
    • -PE-DIC
  48. Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesions in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)
    Ghon complex (primary TB)
  49. "Honeycomb" lung on xray or CT
    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
  50. Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)
    Trousseau's Syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)
  51. Hypersegmented neutrophils
    -megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency, folate deficiency)
  52. -Hypertension
    -metabolic alkalosis
    Conn's syndrome
  53. Hypochromic, microcytic anemia
    • -Iron deficiency anemia
    • -lead poisoning
    • -thalassemia
  54. Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
    • -dating error
    • -anencephaly
    • -spina bifida (NT defects)
  55. Increased uric acid levels
    • -gout
    • -Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
    • -tumor lysis syndrome
    • -loop and thiazide diuretics
  56. Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies
    Cowdry type A vodies (HSV, CMV)
  57. Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum
    Ferruginous bodies (asbestos)
  58. Keratin pearls on skin biopsy
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  59. -Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes
    Chediak Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
  60. "lead pipe" appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray
    Ulcerative colitis
  61. Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement membrane
    Goodpasture's Syndrome
  62. Low serum ceruloplasmin
    Wilson's disease
  63. "Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on IF
    Poststerptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
  64. Lytic "hole punch" bone lesions on xray
    Multiple myeloma
  65. Mammary gland "blue-domed" cyst
    fibrocystic changes of the breast
  66. Monoclonal antibody spike
    • -multiple myeloma (IgG or IgA)
    • -MGUS (normal consequence of aging)
    • -Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
    • -Primary amyloidosis
  67. Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus
    Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
  68. Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium xray
    "string sign" (Crohn's disease)
  69. Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
    • -Wegener's (c-ANCA)
    • -Goodpasture's (anti-BM antibodies)
  70. Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
    Gout (monosodium urate crystals)
  71. Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
    Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
  72. Novobiocin response
    • Sensitive: S. epidermidis
    • Resistant: S. saprophyticus
  73. "Nutmeg" appearance of liver
    Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
  74. "Onion skin" periosteal reaction
    Ewing's sarcoma
  75. Optochin response
    • Sensitive: S. pneumo
    • Resistant: Viridans strep
  76. Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area
    • Codman's triangle
    • -osteosarcoma
    • -Ewing's sarcoma
    • -pyogenic osteomyelitis
  77. Podocyte fusion or "effacement" on EM
    Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
  78. Polished, "ivory" like appearance of bone at cartilage erosion
    Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
  79. Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
    • -Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's)
    • -Pick's Bodies (Pick disease)
  80. Psammoma Bodies
    • -Meningiomas
    • -Papillary thyroid carcinoma
    • -Mesothelioma
    • -Papillary serous carcinoma of endometrium and ovary
  81. Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  82. RBC casts in urine
    Acute glomerulonephritis
  83. Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells
    Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
  84. Renal epithelial casts in urine
    Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
  85. Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
    Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)
  86. Rib notching
    Coarctation of the aorta
  87. Ring-enhancing lesions in AIDS
    • -Toxoplasma gondii
    • -CNS lymphoma
  88. Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophages ("starry sky" histology)
    Burkitt's Lymphoma (associated with EBV)
  89. Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
    Pick bodies (Pick's disease)
  90. "Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray
    Giant cell tumor of bone (usually benign)
  91. "spikes" on BM, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits
    Membranous glomerulonephritis
  92. Stacks of RBCs
    • Rouleaux formation
    • -high ESR (MM)
  93. Stippled vaginal epithelial cells
    "Clue cells" (Gardenerella vaginalis)
  94. "Tennis racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells
    • Birbeck granules
    • -Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    • -Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
  95. Thrombi made of white/red layers
    • Lines of Zahn
    • -arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs
  96. "Thumb sign" on lateral xray
    Epiglotitis (H. flu)
  97. Thyroid-like appearance of kidney
    Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
  98. Tram-track appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membrane on LM
  99. Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles
    Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
  100. "Waxy" casts with very low urine flow
    Chronic end stage renal disease
  101. WBC casts in urine
    Acute pyelonephritis
  102. WBCs that look "smudged"
    -CLL (almost always B cell)
  103. "Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on LM
    Lupus nephropathy
  104. Yellowish CSF
    Xanthochromia (eg: subarachnoid hemorrhage)