Rapid Review: Key Associations

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jknell
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210413
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Rapid Review: Key Associations
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2013-03-30 18:32:18
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  1. Actinic (solar) keratosis
    Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
  2. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
    Cushing's ulcer (increased ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
  3. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns/trauma
    Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
  4. Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
    Skip Lesions (Crohn's Disease)
  5. Aneurysm, dissection
    Hypertension
  6. Aortic Aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
    Atherosclerosis
  7. Aortic aneurysm, arch
    • Tertiary syphilis
    • vasa vasorum destruction
  8. Aortic aneurysm, ascending
    Marfan's syndrome
  9. Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
    Wernicke's encephalopathy
  10. Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
    Sickle cell anemia
  11. Bacteria associated with gastritis, PUD, and stomach cancer
    H. pylori
  12. Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
    S. pneumo
  13. Bacterial meningitis (kids)
    • S. pneumo
    • N. meningitidis
  14. Bacterial meningitis (newborns)
    Group B strep
  15. Benign melanocytic nevus
    Spitz nevus
  16. Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
    Bernard-Soulier syndrome
  17. Brain tumor (adults)
    Supratentorial: Met > Astrocytoma (glioblastoma) > meningioma > schwannoma
  18. Brain tumor (kids)
    • Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
    • Supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
  19. Breast Cancer
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
  20. Breast Mass
    • Fibrocystic change
    • Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
  21. Breast Tumor (Benign)
    Fibroadenoma
  22. Cardiac Primary Tumor (Kids)
    Rhabdomyoma (tuberous sclerosis)
  23. Cardiac manifestation of lupus
    • Libman-Sacks endocarditis
    • -non-bacterial
    • -both sides of mitral valve
  24. Cardiac Tumor (Adults)
    • Metastasis
    • Primary myxoma ("ball and valve")
  25. Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation
    Chiari malformation
  26. Chronic Arrhythmia
    Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
  27. Chronic Atrophic Gastritis
    • -autoimmune
    • -predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
  28. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
    DES exposure in utero
  29. Compression Fracture
    • Osteoporosis
    • -type I: postmenopausal women
    • -type II: elderly man or woman
  30. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Hypotension
    21-hydroxylase deficiency
  31. Congenital Cardiac Anomaly
    VSD
  32. Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
    Dubin Johnson Syndrome
  33. Constrictive pericarditis
    • Tuberculosis (developing world)
    • SLE (developed world)
  34. Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
    LAD > RCA >LCA
  35. Cretinism
    Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
  36. Cushing's Syndrome
    • -Iatrogenic cushing's (from corticosteroids therapy)
    • -Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
    • -ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
    • -Paraneoplastic Cushing's (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)
  37. Cyanosis (early; less common)
    • Tetralogy of Fallot
    • Transposition of Great Vessels
    • Truncus Arteriosus
  38. Cyanosis (late; more common)
    • VSD
    • ASD
    • PDA
  39. Death in CML
    Blast crisis
  40. Death in SLE
    lupus nephropathy
  41. Dementia
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Multiple infarcts
  42. Demyelinating disease in young women
    MS
  43. DIC
    • Severe Sepsis
    • Obstetric Complications
    • Cancer
    • Burns
    • Trauma
    • Major Surgery
  44. Dietary Deficit
    iron
  45. Diverticulum in Pharynx
    Zenker's diverticulum (dx by barium swallow)
  46. Ejection Click
    Aortic/Pulmonic Stenosis
  47. Esophageal Cancer
    • Sqaumous cell carcinoma (worldwide)
    • Adenocarcinoma (US)
  48. Food Poisoning (exotoxin mediated)
    • S. aureus
    • B. cereus
  49. Glomerulonephritis (adults)
    Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
  50. Gynecologic Malignancy
    • Endometrial carcinoma (US)
    • Cervical carcinoma (worldwide)
  51. Heart murmur, congenital
    Mitral valve prolaps
  52. Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
    Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug use)
  53. Helminth Infection (US)
    • Enterobius vermicularis
    • Ascaris lumbricoides
  54. Hematoma-epidural
    Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma, lentiform shaped)
  55. Hematoma-subdural
    Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
  56. Hemochromatosis
    • Multiple drug transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation
    • -can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes", increase risk of HCC
  57. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Cirrhotic liver (Hep B, C, alcoholism)
  58. Hereditary Bleeding Disorder
    von Willebrand's disease
  59. Hereditary harmless jaundice
    Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  60. HLA-B27
    • Ankylosing spondylitis
    • Reiter's syndrome
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Psoriasis
  61. HLA-DR3 or DR4
    • DM1
    • RA
    • SLE
  62. Holosystolic Murmur
    • VSD
    • Tricuspid Regurgitation
    • Mitral Regurgitation
  63. Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
    Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
  64. Hypertension, Secondary
    Renal Disease
  65. Hypoparathyroidism
    Accidental excision during thyroidectomy
  66. Hypopituitarism
    Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
  67. Infection secondary to blood transfusion
    Hepatitis C
  68. Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    • S. aureus
    • E coli
    • Aspergillus

    *catalase positive
  69. Kidney Stones
    • Calcium = radiopaque
    • Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease + bugs like protease or staph)
    • Uric Acid = radiolucent
  70. Late Cyanotic Shunt (uncorrected L to R, become R to L)
    • Eisenmenger's Syndrome
    • -caused by: ASD, VSD, PDA
    • -results in: pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia
  71. Liver Disease
    Alcoholic cirrhosis
  72. Lysosomal Storage Disease
    Gaucher's disease
  73. Male Cancer
    Prostate cancer
  74. Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  75. Malignancy (kids)
    • ALL
    • medulloblastoma
  76. Mental Retardation
    • Down syndrome
    • Fragile X syndrome
  77. Metastases to bone
    Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid, testes
  78. Metastases to brain
    lung > breast > GU > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI
  79. Metastases to liver
    Colon >> stomach, pancreas
  80. Mitochondrial inheritance
    • disease occurs in males and females
    • inherited through females only
  81. Mitral Valve Stenosis
    Rheumatic heart disease
  82. Mixed UMN and LMN disease
    ALS
  83. Myocarditis
    Coxsackie B
  84. Nephrotic Syndrome (adults)
    FSGS
  85. Nephrotic Syndrome (kids)
    MCD
  86. Neuron migration failure
    Kallmann Syndrome
  87. Nosocomial pneumonia
    • Klebsiella
    • E coli
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  88. Obstruction of male urinary tract
    BPH
  89. Opening snap
    mitral stenosis
  90. Opportunistic infections in AIDS
    PCP pneumonia
  91. Osteomyelitis
    S. aureus
  92. Osteomyelitis in SCD
    Salmonella
  93. Osteomyelitis in IV drug use
    • Pseudomonas
    • S aureus
  94. Ovarian met from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
    Krukenburg tumor
  95. Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)
    Serous cystadenoma
  96. Ovarian tumor (malignant)
    serous cystadenocarcinoma
  97. Pancreatitis (acute)
    • Gallstones
    • Alcohol
  98. Pancreatitis (chronic)
    • Alcohol (adults)
    • CF (kids)
  99. Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
    • ALL: child
    • CLL: adult > 60
    • AML: adult ~ 65
    • CML: adult 30-60
  100. PID
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
  101. Philadelphia Chromosome
    t(9;22)

    • CML
    • may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML
  102. Pituitary Tumor
    • Prolactinoma
    • Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
  103. Primary Amenorrhea
    Turner Syndrome (45 XO)
  104. Primary bone tumor (adults)
    Multiple Myeloma
  105. Primary Hyperaldosteronism
    Adenoma of adrenal cortex
  106. Primary Hyperparathyroidism
    • Adenomas
    • Hyperplasia
    • Carcinoma
  107. Primary Liver Cancer
    • HCC-chronic hepatitis
    • -cirrhosis
    • -hemochromatisis
    • -a1 antitrypsin deficiency
  108. Pulmonary Hypertension
    COPD
  109. Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium sized vessels in extremities
    Buerger's Disease (tobacco!)
  110. Renal Tumor
    RCC (associated with vHL and smoking)

    • Paraneoplastic syndromes:
    • -EPO
    • -renin
    • -PTH
    • -ACTH
  111. RHF due to pulmonary cause
    Cor pulmonale
  112. S3
    • increased ventricular filling
    • -L to R shunt
    • -Mitral regurg
    • -LV failure (CHF)
  113. S4
    • Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle
    • -AS
    • -restrictive cardiomyopathy
  114. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
    Hypocalcemia of CKD
  115. STD
    chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
  116. SIADH
    SCLCa
  117. Site of diverticula
    sigmoid colon
  118. Site of atherosclerosis
    abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery
  119. Stomach Cancer
    adenocarcinoma
  120. Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  121. t(14;18)
    Follicular lymphoma (bcl2)
  122. t(8;14)
    Burkitt's lymphoma (c myc)
  123. t(9;22)
    • Philadelphia chromosome
    • CML (bcr-abl)
  124. Temporal arteritis
    • risk of ipsilateral blindiness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
    • polymyalgia rheumatic
  125. Testicular tumor
    seminoma
  126. Thyroid cancer
    papillary carcinoma
  127. Tumor in women
    leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
  128. Tumor in infancy
    Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
  129. Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
    pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
  130. Tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)
    neuroblastoma (malignant)
  131. Type of Hodgkin's
    Nodular sclerosis
  132. Type of Non-Hodgkin's
    Diffuse large cell
  133. UTI
    • E coli
    • S saprophyticus (young women)
  134. Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe
    HSV1
  135. Vitamin Deficiency (US)
    • Folate (body only stores 3-4 month supply)
    • -prevents NT defects

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