BIOL 404 - Endocrine 1

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BIOL 404 - Endocrine 1
2013-05-13 12:17:37
BIOL 404 Endocrine

BIOL 404 - Endocrine 1
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  1. Define Autocrine:
    The cell signals itself through chemicals that it produced. It can be w/in the cytoplasm or on the surface of the cell.
  2. Define Paracrine:
    chemical signals that interact with receptors on nearby cells
  3. Examples of Paracrine chamical signals are:
    Cytokines and neurotransmitters
  4. define exocrine:
    chemical signals are secreted into ducts
  5. define endocrine:
    chemical signals are secreted into the blood
  6. The nervous system compared to the endocrine system is:
    fast and electrical
  7. The endocrine system produces what?
    chemical signals = hormones
  8. Cells muct bear what to respond to a hormone?
  9. T/F, some neurons can act as endocrine cells?
  10. Define endocrinology:
    The study of hormones and their signaling pathways
  11. Endocrine organs include:
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pineal Gland
    • Pituitary Gland
    • Thyroid
    • Parathyroid
    • Pancreas
    • Adrenal Glands
    • Gonads
  12. Diffuse endocrine system includes what specific types of cells:
    • Myocytes of heart atria
    • some epithelial cells
    • cells in stomach and small intestine
  13. The diffuse endocrine system is classified as what type of endocrine cells?
  14. Non-traditional endocrine organs include:
    • Heart
    • GI tract
    • Kidney
    • Liver
    • Thymus
  15. Non-traditional endocrine cells include:
    • Lymphocytes
    • Adipose
    • Endothelial cells
    • Macrophages
    • Fibroblasts
    • Cells that produce growth factors
  16. GI hormonal regulation of motility 
    • Motilin
    • Substance P
    • Neurotensin
    • Enteroglucagon
    • Vasoactive intestinal peptide
  17. Motilin is involved with:
    GI motility
  18. Substance P is involved in:
    GI motility
  19. Neurotensin is involved in:
    GI motility
  20. Enteroglucagon is involved in:
    GI motility
  21. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in:
    GI motility
  22. Amines are derived from:
  23. Steroids are derived from:
  24. Peptides have how many amino acids?
    > 3
  25. Hormone groups that are drived from tyrosine are:
    Thyroid hormones and Catecholamines
  26. What two amino acids (other than Tyrosine) are hormone precursors?
    Tryptophan and Histadine
  27. Examples of Catecholamines include what examples:
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • dopamine
  28. Example of a Thyroid hormone is:
  29. Thyroid hormones are usually made by:
    doubling a tyrosine and incorporating 3-4 iodine atoms
  30. The incorporation fo Iodine atoms into Thyroid hormones adds what characteristic?
  31. The differnce between epinephrine and norepinephrine is:
    • the methyl group attached to the nitrogen is removed and replaced with a hydrogen
  32. Dopamine is different from norepinephrine how?
    • The OH group is changed to a Hydrogen.
  33. How do Tyroxine and Triidothyronine differ?
    Triidothyronine has one less iodine (T3)
  34. Hormones undergo modifications during packaging and after they have been secreted T/F?
  35. What is a pre-pro-hormone?
    a hormone that has not been fully synthesized, packaged or stored.
  36. insuline is synthesized as what type of hormone precursor?
  37. Isulin is synthesized where?
    B cells of the islets of Langerhans
  38. The pre portion of a pre pro hormone is a:
    signal peptide
  39. The pre component of the prepro insulin is removed where?
    cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum
  40. After the pre componenet of preproinsulin is removed what happens to the molecule?
    • it is packaged into secretory vesicles in teh Golgi
    • folded into its native structure
    • locked into this conformation by 2 disulfide bonds
  41. Protease activity cleaves what portion of the pro-insulin molecule to form the final hormone?
    Center third of the molecule
  42. The cleaved center third of an insulin molecule is called?
    C peptide
  43. The final insulin product has what two chains wtill intact?
    A and C chain
  44. The A and C chain of an insulin molecule are held together by wht?
    2 disulfide bonds
  45. The amino terminal is on which peptide of insulin?
    The B peptide
  46. The carboxyl terminal is on which peptide of insulin?
    The A peptide
  47. insulin is differnt from proinulin by what characteristic?
    • The A, C and B chain with a signal peptide attached to the B chain.
  48. Proinsulin has what parts?
    • A, C and B peptides with dislufide linkers (2) between the A and B components.
  49. insulin is differnt from proinsulin by what parts?
    • No C peptide
  50. The first three steps of steroid production are:
    • Signal for steroid production
    • Activation of cAMP
    • Protein Kinase A activation of cholesterol esterase
  51. Steps 4-5of Steroid synthesis are:
    4 & 5) Cholesterol transported by steroidenic acute regulatory protein to mitochondria
  52. Dteps 6-9 of steroid synthesis are:
    • transport between mitochondria ER
    • diffusion via lipid bilayer to blood
  53. PKA stands for
    Protein Kinase A
  54. LDL stands for
    Low density lipoproteins
  55. StAR stands for:
    steroidenic acute regulator protein
  56. PBR stands for:
    peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
  57. Sex steroid produced in the adrenal gland is:
  58. Sex steroids produced in the Gonads are:
    • Androstenedione
    • Testosterone
    • Estradiol
  59. Steroids of the adrenal gland are:
    • Progesterone
    • Corticosterone
    • Aldosterone
  60. Mineral corticoid produced in the adrenal cortex is:
  61. Glucococorticoid produced in the adrenal gland is:
  62. Androstenedione is produced where?
  63. Androstenedione is what type of steroid?
    Sex steroid
  64. Testosterone is porduced where?
  65. Testosterone is what type of steroid?
    Sex steroid
  66. Estradoil is what type of steroid?
    sex steroid
  67. Estradoil is produced where?
  68. Progesterone is what type of steroid?
    Sex steroid
  69. Corticosterone is what type of steroid?
  70. Corticosterone is produced where?
    Adrenal Cortex
  71. Aldosterone is what type of steroid?
  72. Aldosterone is produced where?
    Adrenal cortex
  73. Cholesterol can be converted directly into what three hormones?
    • Coricol
    • Progesterone
    • Androstenedione
  74. Progesterone can be converted directly into what two steroids?
    • Corticol
    • Androstenedione
  75. What are the intermediates between cholesterol and Aldosterone?
    • Pregnenolone
    • Progesterone
    • Corticosterone
  76. What are the intermediates between Cholesterol and Cortisol?
    • Pregnenolone
    • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  77. What are the intermediates between Chlolesterol and Androstensdione?
    • pregnenolone
    • dehydroepiandrosterone
    • OR
    • Prenenolone
    • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
    • OR
    • Pregnenolone
    • Progesterone
    • 17-hydroxyprogesterone
  78. Aromatase converts Adnrostenedione into __________ in the gonads?
  79. Aromatase converts Testosterone into what in the Gonads?
  80. What hormone is secreted by the testis?
  81. What hormone is secreted by the ovaries?
  82. Estrone can be converted into what hormone?
  83. What are the two pathways for Estradiol production in the Gonads?
    • Cholesterol
    • Androstenedione
    • Estrone
    • Estradoil
    • OR
    • Cholesterol
    • Androstenedione
    • testosterone
    • estradiol
  84. What is the pathway of testosterone porduction in the Gonads?
    • Cholesterol
    • Androstenedione
    • Testosterone
  85. What are the two main areas of the adrenal gland?
    Medulla (inner) and cortex (outer)
  86. What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex?
    • Zona glomerulose (outer)
    • Zona fasciculata (middle)
    • Zona reticularis (inner)
  87. What hormone is porduced in the Zona glomerulose of the adrenal gland?
  88. What hormone is produced in the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland?
    Cortisol and small amounts of androgens
  89. What hormones are produced in the Zona reticularis of the adrenal gland?
    Androgens and small amounts of cortisol
  90. What hormones are produced in the Adrenal Medulla?
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
  91. What types of hormones are water soluble?
    Amino Acid derivative and peptides
  92. What types of hormones are water insoluble?
    • Ateroids
    • Thyroxine
    • Triidothyronine
  93. How are water insoluble hormones transported?
    • Protein carrier molecules
    • Hfree + Bprotein = H/BP
  94. Maintenance of plasma levels of hormones controlled by three aspects, which are:
    • Rate of secretion
    • Rate of dispersal
    • Rate of removal
  95. What is the most highly regulated aspect of endocrine control of hormone levels?
    Rate of production: synthesis and secretion
  96. Rate of delivery of a hormone is controlled by:
    blood flow to the area
  97. Rate of degredation and elimination of hormones is controlled by:
    metabolism and excretion
  98. If a half life for a hormone is long, what is the expected rate of secretion?
  99. If the half life of a hormone is short what is the expectde rate of secretion?
  100. What three things effect the rate of hormone secretion by an endocrine cell?
    • Ions or nutrients
    • neurotransmitters
    • hormones
  101. Where are the protein recetors for water soluble hormones located on the cell?
    Cellular membrane
  102. Where are the protein receptors for lipid soluble hormones located on the cell?
  103. Describe the mechanism of action of a lipid soluble hormone on a cell:
    Diffuse through cellular membrane and attach to intracellular receptor
  104. Describe the mechanism of action of a water soluble hormone on a protein receptor?
    bind to cellular membrane receptor
  105. What four types of cell surface hormonal receptors exist?
    • those that function as ion channels as well
    • those that function as enzymes as well
    • those that are bound to and activate cytoplasmic JAK kinases
    • those that activate G proteins
  106. G proteins act as what type of effector protein when activated?
    • ion channel or enzyme
  107. What is the mechanism of action of lipid soluble hormonal receptors?
    function in the nucleus as transcription factors or supressors
  108. What is permissiveness?
    Synergistic interactions
  109. Give an example of permissiveness:
    Epinephrin and thyroid hormone cause a synergistic interaction that causes the release of fatty acids from a cell at a rate that is much higher than the composite produced of each hormone on their own.
  110. Give an example of an antagonizing hormone
    Somatostatin acts on the anterior pituitary somatotrophic cells to inhibits the release of GH (growth hormone)
  111. Somatostatin effects what cells?
    Anterior pituitary somatotrophs
  112. The action of Somatostatin on the anterior pituitary somatotrophs is classified as:
  113. The action of epinephrine and thyroid hormone together of cells vs. each separetly is an example of:
    permissiveness or synergistic interactions
  114. Up regulation refers to what?
    an increase in teh total number of target cell receptors for a hormone
  115. Up regulation often happens due to what?
    chronic low extracellular conc. of a hormone
  116. chronic low extracellular conc. of a hormone can cause what?
    up regulation
  117. down regulation refers to what?
    A decrease in the total number of target cell receptors for a given hormone
  118. What causes down regulation?
    Chronic high extracellular concentrations of the hormone
  119. chronic high extracellular concentrations of a hormone can cause what?
    down regulation
  120. What are two type of receptor number modulations?
    up and down regulation
  121. Up and down regulation are what type of modulations?
    receptor number modulations
  122. What are the three segments of neuronal imputs for hormone regulation?
    • autonomic nervous system
    • Central nervous system
    • hypothalamus
  123. What divisions of the autonomic nervous system play a role in hormonal regulation?
    • Adrenal medulla
    • Endocrine gland cells
  124. What divisions of the central nervous system are involved in hormone regulation?
    Autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamus
  125. What divisions of the hypothalamus are involved in hormone regulation?
    Anterior pituitary and the posterio pituitary
  126. The hypothalamus interacts with the anterior pituitary via?
  127. the hypothalamus interacts with the posterior pituitary via:
    Direct electrical signal via neurons
  128. The CNS interacts with the adrenal medulla via:
    direct electrical signal via neurons
  129. The CNS interacts with endocrine gland cells via:
    neurons synapsed in the autonomic galnglion and then direct neural contact with the gland cell.
  130. Types of endocrine disorders can be broken into two catagories:
    • endocrine gland secretion
    • target gland response
  131. types of endocrine gland production disorders are:
    hypersecretion and hyposecretion
  132. types of target gland response disorders are:
    hyporesponsive or hyperresponsive
  133. Endocrine products are secreted and carried/delivered via:
    the blood
  134. Classes of hormones are (3):
    • amines
    • peptides
    • steroids
  135. Water insoluble hormones require what for transport?
    protein carrier