Lymphocytes and Plasma Cells

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Author:
ncrook
ID:
210432
Filename:
Lymphocytes and Plasma Cells
Updated:
2013-05-18 23:47:28
Tags:
Review Maturation Morphology Lymph Natural Killer Nonmalignant Lymphocytosis Associated Viral Infections
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Description:
Review, Maturation, Morphology, T Lymph, B Lymph, Natural Killer, Nonmalignant Lymphocytosis Associated with Viral Infections
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  1. Where are B Lymphocytes differentiated at ?
    Bone marrow
  2. Where are T Lymphocytes differentiated at?
    Thymus through antigen-independent lymphopoiesis
  3. Name primary lymphoid tissues
    • Bone marrow
    • Thymus
  4. Describe a lymphoblast
    • 1 or more nucleoli
    • Dark blue cytoplasm
    • No cytoplasmic granules
  5. Describe a prolymphocyte
    • 0-1 nucleoli
    • Basophilic cytoplasm
    • No cytoplasmic granules
  6. Describe a lymphocyte
    • Scant to moderate amount of blue cytoplasm
    • Few azurophilic granules
  7. When do reactive lymphocytes become activated?
    Activated as part of immune response
  8. Describe reactive lymphocytes
    • Larger cell
    • Increased amount of dark blue cytoplasm (RNA)
    • Irregular shaped nucleus
    • Irregular shape to the cytoplasm, indented by RBCs
  9. What are T Lymphocytes dependent on?
    Antigenic stimulation
  10. What are the membrane markers for T Lymphs?
    • CD2
    • CD3
    • Others
  11. What are the functions of T Lymphs?
    • Cellular immunity
    • Graft rejections
    • Lysis of neoplastic cells
    • Attack/destroy viral and fungal organisms
    • Obtain info from monos
    • Regulates humoral response by helping antigens activate B cells
    • End products of activation are cytokines/lymphokines/interleukins
  12. Name the 3 T cell subsets involved in immune response
    • T helper/inducer cell (T4)
    • T suppressor cell (T8)
    • Cytotoxic T cell (T8)
  13. What T cell is identified by CD4 membrane marker and promotes activation of B cells by antigens?
    T helper/inducer cell (T4)
  14. What T cell is identified by CD8 membrane marker and suppresses activation of B cells by antigens?
    T suppressor (T8)
  15. What T cell is identified by CD8 membrane marker and functions in viral infections and organ rejections?
    Cytotoxic T cell (T8)
  16. What is the normal T4:T8 ratio in the circulating blood?
    2:1
  17. What clinical condition monitors the T4:T8 ratio?
    • HIV patients
    • HIV destroys T helper (CD4) cells, which decreases the ratio as the infection spreads
  18. What are B Lymphs dependent on?
    Dependent on antigenic stimulation
  19. What membrane markers identify B Lymphs?
    • CD19
    • CD20
    • Others
  20. What happens when foreign antigens stimulate B Lymphs?
    • Stimulates B Lymphs to become reactive lymphs
    • Reactive lymphs transform into immunoblasts, then into plasma cells that produce antibodies to provide humoral immunity
  21. What cell is the end stage of B lymphs, dominant in lymph nodes, and not normally seen in circulation?
    Plasma cells
  22. Describe plasma cells
    • Abundant blue cytoplasm with prominent perinuclear (golgi) zone
    • Eccentric nucleus with a very coarse, clumped chromatin pattern
  23. What cells lack B cell or T cell membrane markers, are CD16 and CD56 positive, and responsible for surveillance of cells for surface alterations such as tumor cells or cells infected with viruses?
    Natural Killer (NK) / Large Granular Lymphocytes (LGLs)
  24. What are Natural Killer (NK) / Large Granular Lymphocytes (LGLs) activated by?
    IL-2 to express nonspecific cytotoxic functions
  25. How do Natural Killer (NK) / Large Granular Lymphocytes work?
    Attack antigens with attached IgG - called antibody dependent cytotoxic cells
  26. What condition:
    Lymphs >50%, with 20% reactive T Lymphs attacking the affected B lymphs
    Heterophile antibody test POS
    Agent infects B lymphs
    Transmitted through nasopharyngeal secretions
    Infectious mononucleosis
  27. What condition:
    90% of Lymphs can be reactive
    Negative heterophile antibody test
    Transmitted by Blood transfusion and Saliva exchange
    CMV (Cytomegalovirus)
  28. What condition:
    After 12-21 day incubation period, symptoms appear and include vomiting, fever, rash, diarrhea, and possible CNS involvement
    Lymphocytosis with no reactive lymphocytes
    Associated with Adenovirus and Coxsackie A virus
    Infectious lymphocytosis
  29. Name some other conditions associated with viral lymphocytosis
    • Hepatitis
    • Influenza
    • Mumps
    • Measles
    • Rubella
    • Varicella
  30. Name some other conditions associated with nonviral lymphocytosis
    • Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough)
    • Brucellosis
    • Toxoplasmosis
  31. Name what cells are indicated with the following CD markers:
    CD2, CD3
    CD4
    CD8
    CD13
    CD11c, CD14
    CD19, CD20
    CD33
    CD34
    CD16, CD56

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