BIOL 404-Lecture 2
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BIOL 404-Lecture 2
BIOL 404 Lecture
BIOL 404-Lecture 2
What is the pyramid effect
The neurons of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus synapse where?
The median eminance is located where?
between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
The pituitary gland sits in what bone?
The thin section between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland is called what?
The two portions of the pituitary gland are:
Anterior and posterior
The notch in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland sits is called the:
The hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels lead from venous circulation to what point?
The median eminance
What is the basic system of communication between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary?
Hypothalmic neuron relases hormones into the hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels
The horone travels to the anterior pituitary where is signals gland cells to release hormones into venous circulation
Another name for the posterior pituitary is:
neurohypophyseal hormones are synthesized where?
Cell bodies of mangocellular neurons
Describe the communication pathway between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary
Paraventricular nucleii (PVN) and Supraoptic nuclaeii (SOM) have axons that extend to the posterior pituitary vis the "Supra-optic hypothalamic tract"
PVN stands for:
SOM stands for:
Hormones produced in the posterior pituitary include:
contraction of myoepithelial cells
uterine smooth muscle contraction
Antidiuretic hormone is also known as:
roughly what mass of the body is water?
Antidiuretic is what type of hormone?
The higher the plasma osmolarity, the higher concentration of what hormone?
Oxytocin is what type of hormone?
What is the differnec between oxytocin and ADH?
oxytocin has Ile and Leu
Antidiuretic has Phe and Arg
ADH and oxytocin have how many amino acids differing between them?
The leucine in oxytocin is what amino acid in ADH?
The arginine in ADH is what amino acid in Oxytocin?
Teh Isoleucine in oxytocin is what amino acid in ADH?
Phenylalanine in ADH is what amino acid in Oxytocin?
How many types of receptors are there for Oxytocin?
How many types of receptors for ADH are there?
Where are teh receptors for Oxytocin located?
Uterine and mammary smooth muscle
What are the two types ADH recptors?
V1 and V2
V1 ADH receptors is found in:
vascular smooth muscle
V1 stands for:
Vasopressin receptor 1
V2 is found where?
V2 receptors work by what mechanism?
adenylate cyclase activation
Which ADH receptor is found in the kidneys?
Which ADH receptor is found in vascular smooth muscle?
Which ADH receptor involves adenylate cyclase activation
The Anterior pituitary is also known as:
Most anterior ituitary hormones are under th dual control of:
Hypothalmic releasign hormones
Hypothalmic inhibitory factors
Hypothalmic releasing hormones affect the anterior pituitary via what circulatory system
Hypophyseal portal circulation
What are the hypothalmic releasing hormones?
Thyrotropin releasing hormone
thyrotrophin (TSH) secretion
Thyrotrophin secretion in teh anterior pituitary is under the control of what hypothalmic hormone?
TRH = Thyrotropin relseasing hormone
GnRH stands for:
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
gonadotrophin secretion (LH and FSH)
Gonadotrophin (LH and FSH) are stimulated for secretion by what Hypothalmic hormone?
CRH stands for:
The secretion of corticotrophin (ACTH)
Corticotrophin or ACTH is stimulated to be released by what Hypothalmic hormone?
GHRH stands for:
Growth hormone releasing hormone
secretion of GH
GH secretion is stimulated by:
Dopamine inhibits the secretion of
SS stands for:
DA stands for:
GHRH increase teh synthesis of of GH via:
AC-cAMP PKA-CREB pathway
What five cell types are found in the Anterior pituitary?
Thyrotrophs secrete what hormone?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
TSH stimulates what?
synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones
What hormone stimulate sthe synthesis and secretion fo thyroid hormones?
What type of cell in the anterior pituitary produceds TSH?
Where are Thyro trophs located?
TSh is secreted from what organ?
Gonadotrophs are cells in the anterior pituitary that secrete what hormone?
LH and FSH stimulate what?
steroid biosynthesis and germ cell maturation in the gonads
What hormone stimulates steroid biosynthesis and germ cell maturation in the gonads?
LH and FSH
Gonadotrophins (LH and FSH) are produced in what type of anterior pituitary cells?
LH and FSH are produced in what organ?
Corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary produce what hormone?
ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulates what?
Steroid biosythesis in the adrenal cortex
What hormone stimulates steroid biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex?
ACTH stands for:
ACTH is produced in what anterior pituitary cell type?
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is produced in what organ?
Somatotrophs produce what hormone?
Somatotrophin = GH
An example of a somatotrophin is:
GH (growth hormone)
growth via insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)
IGF-1 stands for:
insulin like growth factor
GH stimulates growth via what factor:
insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)
What hormone stimulates growth via IGF-1?
GH is secreted in what type of anterior pituitary cells?
Gh is produced in what organ?
Lactotrophs produce what hormone?
Prolactin stimulate what?
Lactation is stimulated by what hormone?
Prolactin is produced in what type of anterior pituitary cells?
Prolactin is produced in what organ?
Which hormones are Heterodymeric glycoproteins?
TSH, LH and FSH
What type hormones are TSH, LH and FSH?
Heterodimeric glycoproteins have what in common?
What differs between each Heterodimeric glycoprotein?
What is the B subunit for TSH
FSHB indicates what?
The B subunit for FSH
Which anterior pituitary hormones have B subunits?
TSH, FSH, and LH (heterodimeric glycoproteins)
how many amino acids are in the a-subunit of heterodimeric glycoproteins?
TRH has how many amino acids?
Which hypothalamic releasing hormone has three amino acids?
Which Hypothalamic releasing hormone has 10 amino acids?
How many amino acids does GnRH have?
How many amino acids does CRH have?
Which hypothalmic releasing hormone has 41 amino acids?
How many aminoa cids does GHRH have?
Which amino acid has 44 amino acids?
Which anterior pituitary horomones have internal di-sulfude bonds?
GH and PRL
Which anterior pituitary hormones are Homologous peptides (approx. 55%)
GH and PRL
What does PRL stand for?
how amny amino acids are in GH?
how many amino acids are in PRL?
How amny amino acids does ACTH have?
ACTH is produced in what organ?
which anterior pituitary hormone has 39 amino acids?
ACTH is coded for by what gene?
Whta does POMC stand for?
Which hormones are coded for by POMC?
What does MSH stand for
melanocyte stimulating hormone
MSH is coded for on what gene?
gamma MSH is coded for at what point in POMC?
Amino terminal fragment
a-MSH is coded for in what portion of POMC?
B-lipotropin of POMC codes for hwat two things?
gamma-Liptropin and B-endorphin
POMC is expressed in what organs
LPH stands for
Endorphin contains what sequence?
Corticotropin like intermediate lobe peptide
beta-MSH is coded for in what region of POMC?
ACTH has codes for what two segments?
alpha-MSH and CLIP
All six anterior pituitary gland hormones are what type?
Name all six peptide hormones produced by the anterior pituitary
FSH and LH targets are the:
GH target is:
liver and many others
TSH target is:
Prolactin target is:
ACTH target is
What anterior pituitary hormone targets the Liver and other tissues?
Which anterior pituitary hormone targets the Gonads?
FSH and LH
Which anterior pituitary hormone targets the thyroid
Which anterior pituitary gland hormone targtes the breasts?
Which anterior pituitary hormone targets the adrenal cortex?
GH stimulates the liver cells to secrete what ?
The actions of FSH and LH in the gonads is to:
Stimulate germ cell development and the roduction of estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males
The action of GH in most tissues is to:
promote protein synthesis and carba nd lipid metabolism
The action of TSH in teh thyroid is to:
stimulate teh secretion of throxina and Triidothyronine
The action of Prolactin in teh breasts is to stimulate breast development and milk production
ACTH acts on the adrenal cortex to stimulate:
Secretion of cortisol
Which anterior pituitary gland hormone causes tissues to synthesize proteins and metabolize carbs and lipids?
Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the liver to release IGF-1?
Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the gonads to produced estradiol, progesterone and testosterone?
LH and FSH
Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the gonads to develop germ cells?
LH and FSH
Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the throid to secrete throxine and Triiodothronine?
Which anterior pituitary hormone causes teh breaste to develop and produce milk?
Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol?
Which hypothalmic hormone causes the anterior pituitary gland to release hormones that act on the gonads?
Which Hypothalmic hormone causes the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the liver to produce IGF-1?
Which Hypothalmic hormone causes the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the tissues to metabolize carbs and lipids and synthesize proteins?
Which Hypothalmic hormone prevents the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the liver to produce IGF-1?
Which Hypothalmic hormone prevents the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the tissues to metabolize carbs and lipids and synthesize proteins?
Which hypothalmic hormone stimulates the release of TSH and Prolactin
Which hypothalmic hormone prevents the release of Prolactin?
Prolactina nd TSH are stimulated to be released by what hypothalmic protein?
Which hypothalmic protein stimulates the release of ACTH?
ACTH is stimulated to be released by what hypothalmic protein
Which two hypothalmic hormones are antagonists in the anterior pituitary
SS and DA