BIOL 404-Lecture 2

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kyleannkelsey
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BIOL 404-Lecture 2
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2013-05-13 12:18:00
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BIOL 404 Lecture
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BIOL 404-Lecture 2
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  1. What is the pyramid effect
  2. The neurons of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus synapse where?
    Posterior pituitary
  3. The median eminance is located where?
    between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
  4. The pituitary gland sits in what bone?
    Sphenoid
  5. The thin section between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland is called what?
    Infindibulum
  6. The two portions of the pituitary gland are:
    Anterior and posterior
  7. The notch in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland sits is called the:
    sella turcica
  8. The hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels lead from venous circulation to what point?
    The median eminance
  9. What is the basic system of communication between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary?
    • Hypothalmic neuron relases hormones into the hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels
    • The horone travels to the anterior pituitary where is signals gland cells to release hormones into venous circulation
  10. Another name for the posterior pituitary is:
    Neurohypophyseal
  11. neurohypophyseal hormones are synthesized where?
    Cell bodies of mangocellular neurons
  12. Describe the communication pathway between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary
    Paraventricular nucleii (PVN) and Supraoptic nuclaeii (SOM) have axons that extend to the posterior pituitary vis the "Supra-optic hypothalamic tract"
  13. PVN stands for:
    Paraventricular nucleus
  14. SOM stands for:
    Supraoptic nucleus
  15. Hormones produced in the posterior pituitary include:
    • Oxytocin
    • Antidiuretic hormone
  16. Oxytocin causes:
    • milk ejection
    • contraction of myoepithelial cells
    • uterine smooth muscle contraction
  17. Antidiuretic hormone is also known as:
    Vasopressin
  18. roughly what mass of the body is water?
    60%
  19. Antidiuretic is what type of hormone?
    peptide
  20. The higher the plasma osmolarity, the higher concentration of what hormone?
    ADH
  21. Oxytocin is what type of hormone?
    peptide
  22. What is the differnec between oxytocin and ADH?
    • oxytocin has Ile and Leu
    • Antidiuretic has Phe and Arg
  23. ADH and oxytocin have how many amino acids differing between them?
    2
  24. The leucine in oxytocin is what amino acid in ADH?
    Arginine
  25. The arginine in ADH is what amino acid in Oxytocin?
    leucine
  26. Teh Isoleucine in oxytocin is what amino acid in ADH?
    Phenylalanine
  27. Phenylalanine in ADH is what amino acid in Oxytocin?
    Isoleucine
  28. How many types of receptors are there for Oxytocin?
    One
  29. How many types of receptors for ADH are there?
     two
  30. Where are teh receptors for Oxytocin located?
    Uterine and mammary smooth muscle
  31. What are the two types ADH recptors?
    V1 and V2
  32. V1 ADH receptors is found in:
    vascular smooth muscle
  33. V1 stands for:
    Vasopressin receptor 1
  34. V2 is found where?
    kidneys
  35. V2 receptors work by what mechanism?
    adenylate cyclase activation
  36. Which ADH receptor is found in the kidneys?
    V2
  37. Which ADH receptor is found in vascular smooth muscle?
    V1
  38. Which ADH receptor involves adenylate cyclase activation
    V2
  39. The Anterior pituitary is also known as:
    Adenohypophysis
  40. Most anterior ituitary hormones are under th dual control of:
    • Hypothalmic releasign hormones
    • Hypothalmic inhibitory factors
  41. Hypothalmic releasing hormones affect the anterior pituitary via what circulatory system
    Hypophyseal portal circulation
  42. What are the hypothalmic releasing hormones?
    • TRH
    • GnRH
    • CRH
    • GHRH
  43. TRH is:
    Thyrotropin releasing hormone
  44. TRH stimulates:
    thyrotrophin (TSH) secretion
  45. Thyrotrophin secretion in teh anterior pituitary is under the control of what hypothalmic hormone?
    TRH = Thyrotropin relseasing hormone
  46. GnRH stands for:
    Gonadotropin releasing hormone
  47. GnRH stimulates:
    gonadotrophin secretion (LH and FSH)
  48. Gonadotrophin (LH and FSH) are stimulated for secretion by what Hypothalmic hormone?
    GnRH
  49. CRH stands for:
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone
  50. CRH stimulates:
    The secretion of corticotrophin (ACTH)
  51. Corticotrophin or ACTH is stimulated to be released by what Hypothalmic hormone?
    CRH
  52. GHRH stands for:
    Growth hormone releasing hormone
  53. GHRH stimulates:
    secretion of GH
  54. GH secretion is stimulated by:
    GHRH
  55. Dopamine inhibits the secretion of
    prolactin
  56. SS stands for:
    Somatostatin
  57. DA stands for:
    Dopamine
  58. GHRH increase teh synthesis of of GH via:
    AC-cAMP PKA-CREB pathway
  59. What five cell types are found in the Anterior pituitary?
    • Thyrotrophs
    • Gonadotrophs
    • Corticotrophs
    • Somatotrophs
    • Lactotrophs
  60. Thyrotrophs secrete what hormone?
    TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
  61. TSH stimulates what?
    synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones
  62. What hormone stimulate sthe synthesis and secretion fo thyroid hormones?
    TSH
  63. What type of cell in the anterior pituitary produceds TSH?
    Thyrotrophs
  64. Where are Thyro trophs located?
    Anterior pituitary
  65. TSh is secreted from what organ?
    Anterior pituitary
  66. Gonadotrophs are cells in the anterior pituitary that secrete what hormone?
    • Gonadotrophins:
    • LH
    • FSH
  67. LH and FSH stimulate what?
    steroid biosynthesis and germ cell maturation in the gonads
  68. What hormone stimulates steroid biosynthesis and germ cell maturation in the gonads?
    • Gonadotrophins:
    • LH and FSH
  69. Gonadotrophins (LH and FSH) are produced in what type of anterior pituitary cells?
    Gonadotrophs
  70. LH and FSH are produced in what organ?
    Anterior pituitary
  71. Corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary produce what hormone?
    ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
  72. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulates what?
    Steroid biosythesis in the adrenal cortex
  73. What hormone stimulates steroid biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex?
    ACTH
  74. ACTH stands for:
    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  75. ACTH is produced in what anterior pituitary cell type?
    Corticotrophs
  76. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is produced in what organ?
    Anterior pituitary
  77. Somatotrophs produce what hormone?
    Somatotrophin = GH
  78. An example of a somatotrophin is:
    GH (growth hormone)
  79. GH stimulates:
    growth via insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)
  80. IGF-1 stands for:
    insulin like growth factor
  81. GH stimulates growth via what factor:
    insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)
  82. What hormone stimulates growth via IGF-1?
    GH
  83. GH is secreted in what type of anterior pituitary cells?
    Somatotrophs
  84. Gh is produced in what organ?
    Anterior pituitary
  85. Lactotrophs produce what hormone?
    Prolactin
  86. Prolactin stimulate what?
    Lactation
  87. Lactation is stimulated by what hormone?
    Prolactin
  88. Prolactin is produced in what type of anterior pituitary cells?
    Lactotrophs
  89. Prolactin is produced in what organ?
    Anterior pituitary
  90. Which hormones are Heterodymeric glycoproteins?
    TSH, LH and FSH
  91. What type hormones are TSH, LH and FSH?
    Heterodimeric glycoproteins
  92. Heterodimeric glycoproteins have what in common?
    the aplha-subunit
  93. What differs between each Heterodimeric glycoprotein?
    B subunit
  94. What is the B  subunit for TSH
    TSHB
  95. FSHB indicates what?
    The B subunit for FSH
  96. Which anterior pituitary hormones have B subunits?
    TSH, FSH, and LH (heterodimeric glycoproteins)
  97. how many amino acids are in the a-subunit of heterodimeric glycoproteins?
    116
  98. TRH has how many amino acids?
    3
  99. Which hypothalamic releasing hormone has three amino acids?
    TRH
  100. Which Hypothalamic releasing hormone has 10 amino acids?
    GnRH
  101. How many amino acids does GnRH have?
    10
  102. How many amino acids does CRH have?
    41
  103. Which hypothalmic releasing hormone has 41 amino acids?
    CRH
  104. How many aminoa cids does GHRH have?
    44
  105. Which amino acid has 44 amino acids?
    GHRH
  106. Which anterior pituitary horomones have internal di-sulfude bonds?
    GH and PRL
  107. Which anterior pituitary hormones are Homologous peptides (approx. 55%)
    GH and PRL
  108. What does PRL stand for?
    prolactin
  109. how amny amino acids are in GH?
    191
  110. how many amino acids are in PRL?
    198
  111. How amny amino acids does ACTH have?
    39
  112. ACTH is produced in what organ?
    anterior pituitary
  113. which anterior pituitary hormone has 39 amino acids?
    ACTH
  114. ACTH is coded for by what gene?
    Pro-OpioMelanoCortin (POMC)
  115.  Whta does POMC stand for?
    Pro-OpioMelanoCortin
  116. Which hormones are coded for by POMC?
    • ACTH
    • MSH
    • CLIP
    • LPH
    • endorphin
  117. What does MSH stand for
    melanocyte stimulating hormone
  118. MSH is coded for on what gene?
    POMC
  119. gamma MSH is coded for at what point in POMC?
    • Amino terminal fragment
  120. a-MSH is coded for in what portion of POMC?
    ACTH
  121. B-lipotropin of POMC codes for hwat two things?
    gamma-Liptropin and B-endorphin
  122. POMC is expressed in what organs
    • brain
    • GI
    • immune cells
    • gonads
    • placenta
  123. LPH stands for
    Lipotropin
  124. Endorphin contains what sequence?
    met-enkephalin
  125. CLIP
    Corticotropin like intermediate lobe peptide
  126. beta-MSH is coded for in what region of POMC?
    gamma lipotropin
  127. ACTH has codes for what two segments?
    alpha-MSH and CLIP
  128. All six anterior pituitary gland hormones are what  type?
    peptides
  129. Name all six peptide hormones produced by the anterior pituitary
    • FSH
    • LH
    • Prolactin
    • TSH
    • ACTH
    • GH
  130. FSH and LH targets are the:
    gonads
  131. GH target is:
    liver and many others
  132. TSH target is:
    thyroid
  133. Prolactin target is:
    breasts
  134. ACTH target is
    Adrenal cortex
  135. What anterior pituitary hormone targets the Liver and other tissues?
    GH
  136. Which anterior pituitary hormone targets the Gonads?
    FSH and LH
  137. Which anterior pituitary hormone targets the thyroid
    TSH
  138. Which anterior pituitary gland hormone targtes the breasts?
    Prolactin
  139. Which anterior pituitary hormone targets the adrenal cortex?
    ACTH
  140. GH stimulates the liver cells to secrete what ?
    IGF-1
  141. The actions of FSH and LH in the gonads is to:
    Stimulate germ cell development and the roduction of estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males
  142. The action of GH in most tissues is to:
    promote protein synthesis and carba nd lipid metabolism
  143. The action of TSH in teh thyroid is to:
    stimulate teh secretion of throxina and Triidothyronine
  144. The action of Prolactin in teh breasts is to stimulate breast development and milk production
  145. ACTH acts on the adrenal cortex to stimulate:
    Secretion of cortisol
  146. Which anterior pituitary gland hormone causes tissues to synthesize proteins and metabolize carbs and lipids? 
    GH
  147. Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the liver to release IGF-1?
    GH
  148. Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the gonads to produced estradiol, progesterone and testosterone?
    LH and FSH
  149. Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the gonads to develop germ cells?
    LH and FSH
  150. Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the throid to secrete throxine and Triiodothronine?
    TSH
  151. Which anterior pituitary hormone causes teh breaste to develop and produce milk?
    Prolactin
  152. Which anterior pituitary hormone causes the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol?
    ACTH
  153. Which hypothalmic hormone causes the anterior pituitary gland to release hormones that act on the gonads?
    GnRH
  154. Which Hypothalmic hormone causes the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the liver to produce IGF-1?
    GHRH
  155. Which Hypothalmic hormone causes the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the tissues to metabolize carbs and lipids and synthesize proteins?
    GHRH
  156. Which Hypothalmic hormone prevents the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the liver to produce IGF-1?
    SS
  157. Which Hypothalmic hormone prevents the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the tissues to metabolize carbs and lipids and synthesize proteins?
    SS
  158. Which hypothalmic hormone stimulates the release of TSH and Prolactin
    TRH
  159. Which hypothalmic hormone prevents the release of Prolactin?
    DA
  160. Prolactina nd TSH are stimulated to be released by what hypothalmic protein?
    TRH
  161. Which hypothalmic protein stimulates the release of ACTH?
    CRH
  162. ACTH is stimulated to be released by what hypothalmic protein
    CRH
  163. Which two hypothalmic hormones are antagonists in the anterior pituitary
    SS and DA

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