BIOL 404-Lecture 2-2
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BIOL 404-Lecture 2-2
BIOL 404 Lecture
BIOL 404-Lecture 2-2
FSH and LH have how many receptor types?
How many receptor types does TSH have?
GH and prolactin have how many types of receptors?
One, but they can bind with low affinity to many types of receptors.
which anterior pituitary hormone can bind with low affinity to many types of receptors?
GH and prolactin
ACTH has how many types of recptors?
ACTH receptors can be catagorized into what twogroups?
High and low affinity recptors
Which anterior pituitary hormone has high and low affinity recptors?
What is the intermediate reaction to TSH bidning to a receptor?
increasde blood flow through the thyroid and increased proteolysis of thyroglobulin
How many high affinity recptors are on an aderenal cortex cell for ACTH?
How many low ffinity receptors are there on Adrenal cortex cells for ACTH?
600,000 per cell
Why does ACTH have high and low affinity receptors?
So that it can detect presence and concentration
Which adrenal cortex hormone is dmonitored for presence and concentration by its target cell?
Feedback loops help the body maintain what?
Short negative feeback loops occur between what organs?
hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
A feedback loop that extends from the Hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland is classified as a:
A long negative feedback loop includes what organs?
Those outside of the hypthalmic-pituitary comlex
A feeback loop that extends from outside of the hypothalmic-pituitary complex is termed:
Give examples of a short negative feeback loop:
Effects of GH on GHRH
Effects of LH and FSH on GnRH
Give examples of long feeback loops:
Effects of gonadal steroids on GnRH and FSH/LH
Effects of corticosteroids on CRH and ACTH
A tripartate endocrine axis controls what systems?
growth hormone systems
What is a tripartate hormone control system
three negative feedback inhibitions of downstream products.
How does a tripartate negative feeback loop work?
The periphreal gland hormone negatively feedbacks to inhibit the Hypothalamic RH and Pituitary SH. Additionally, the Pituitary SH negatively inhibits the Hypothalamic RH.
What are the names of the three specific tripartate axis?
In the adrenal axis what three hormones play a role?
In the Gonadal Axis what three hormones play a role?
LH and FSH
Testosterone, Estradoil and Progesterone
In the Thyoid axis what three hormones play a role?
T4 and T3
What doe HPT stand for?
Thyroid tripartate axis
What does HPA stand for?
Adrenal tripartate axis
What does HPG stand for
Gonadal tripartate axis
How are cortisol levels regulated during a stressful event?
negative feedback of cortisol on the hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary
It is important to control cortisol levels during what type of non-stressful situation that causes them to rise?
Circadian rhythims can cause a rise in what hormone?
Hormone Pulsatility is:
Daily changes in hormone levels that egulate secretion levels
Hormone Pulsatility regulates what?
Secretion levels of hormones
What three hormones have Hormone Pulsatility?
What tiem does groth hormone spike each day?
just after sleep
Regulation of Growth Hormone is carried out by what measures?
Short and long feedback loops and diverse inputs from the nervous system
Which hormone is under dual control of its secretion?
What produced negative feeback on the secretion of GH?
Pancreatic somatostatin, hypothalmic somatostatin and IGF-1 all limit the release of what
What activities increase the release of GH?
exercise, sleep, low plasma glucose, fasting and stress
Exercise, low plasma glucose, sleeping, stress and fasting all stimulate teh release of what anterior pituitary hormone?
What produces positive stimulation for secretion of GH?
GHRH and Stomach Ghrelin produce what type of effect on GH?
Positive stimulation for secretion
What is the stimulus for TRH, prolactin secretion?
There is none known
Which anterior pituitary hormone may be under dominant negative control of dopamine?
Dopamine is produced in what part of the hypothalamus
What hormone is produced in the acruate nucleus of the hypothalamus?
Estrogens provide what type of feedback for prolactin?
What can override hypothalamo-pituitary drive of endocrin axes?
Higher centers of the brain
Chronic stress can override what negative feedback loop?
CRH adn ACTH
Chronic stress can cause a loss of what two Hypothalamic hormones?
GnRH and GHRH
GnRH and GHRH are affected by high stress in what way?