BIOL 404-Lecture 2-2

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BIOL 404-Lecture 2-2
2013-05-13 12:18:14
BIOL 404 Lecture

BIOL 404-Lecture 2-2
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  1. FSH and LH have how many receptor types?
    one each
  2.  How many receptor types does TSH have?
  3. GH and prolactin have how many types of receptors?
    One, but they can bind with low affinity to many types of receptors.
  4. which anterior pituitary hormone can bind with low affinity to many types of receptors?
    GH and prolactin
  5. ACTH has how many types of recptors?
  6. ACTH receptors can be catagorized into what twogroups?
    High and low affinity recptors
  7. Which anterior pituitary hormone has high and low affinity recptors?
  8. What is the intermediate reaction to TSH bidning to a receptor?
    increasde blood flow through the thyroid and increased proteolysis of thyroglobulin
  9. How many high affinity recptors are on an aderenal cortex cell for ACTH?
    about 60
  10. How many low ffinity receptors are there on Adrenal cortex cells for ACTH?
    600,000 per cell
  11. Why does ACTH have high and low affinity receptors?
    So that it can detect presence and concentration
  12. Which adrenal cortex hormone is dmonitored for presence and concentration by its target cell?
  13. Feedback loops help the body maintain what?
  14. Short negative feeback loops occur between what organs?
    hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
  15. A feedback loop that extends from the Hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland is classified as a:
    short loop
  16. A long negative feedback loop includes what organs?
    Those outside of the hypthalmic-pituitary comlex
  17. A feeback loop that extends from outside of the hypothalmic-pituitary complex is termed:
  18. Give examples of a short negative feeback loop:
    • Effects of GH on GHRH
    • Effects of LH and FSH on GnRH
  19. Give examples of long feeback loops:
    • Effects of gonadal steroids on GnRH and FSH/LH
    • Effects of corticosteroids on CRH and ACTH 
  20. A tripartate endocrine axis controls what systems?
    • reproductive
    • adrenocorticol
    • growth hormone systems
  21. What is a tripartate hormone control system
    three negative feedback inhibitions of downstream products.
  22. How does a tripartate negative feeback loop work?
    • The periphreal gland hormone negatively feedbacks to inhibit the Hypothalamic RH and Pituitary SH. Additionally, the Pituitary SH negatively inhibits the Hypothalamic RH.
  23. What are the names of the three specific tripartate axis?
    • Thyroid Axis
    • Adrenal Axis
    • Gonadal Axis
  24. In the adrenal axis what three hormones play a role?
    • CRH
    • ACTH
    • Cortisol
  25. In the Gonadal Axis what three hormones play a role?
    • GnRH
    • LH and FSH
    • Testosterone, Estradoil and Progesterone
  26. In the Thyoid axis what three hormones play a role?
    • TRH
    • TSH
    • T4 and T3
  27. What doe HPT stand for?
    Thyroid tripartate axis
  28. What does HPA stand for?
    Adrenal tripartate axis
  29. What does HPG stand for
    Gonadal tripartate axis
  30. How are cortisol levels regulated during a stressful event?
    negative feedback of cortisol on the hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary
  31. It is important to control cortisol levels during what type of non-stressful situation that causes them to rise?
    circadian rhythms
  32. Circadian rhythims can cause a rise in what hormone?
  33. Hormone Pulsatility is:
    Daily changes in hormone levels that egulate secretion levels
  34. Hormone Pulsatility regulates what?
    Secretion levels of hormones
  35. What three hormones have Hormone Pulsatility?
    • Cortisol
    • Growth hormone
    • LH
  36. What tiem does groth hormone spike each day?
    just after sleep
  37. Regulation of Growth Hormone is carried out by what measures?
    Short and long feedback loops and diverse inputs from the nervous system
  38. Which hormone is under dual control of its secretion?
  39. What produced negative feeback on the secretion of GH?
    • IGF-1
    • pancreatic somatostatin
    • somatostatin (hypothalamic)
  40. Pancreatic somatostatin, hypothalmic somatostatin and IGF-1 all limit the release of what Anterior pituitary hormone?
  41. What activities increase the release of GH?
    exercise, sleep, low plasma glucose, fasting and stress
  42. Exercise, low plasma glucose, sleeping, stress and fasting all stimulate teh release of what anterior pituitary hormone?
  43. What produces positive stimulation for secretion of GH?
    • Stomach Ghrelin
    • GHRH
  44. GHRH and Stomach Ghrelin produce what type of effect on GH?
    Positive stimulation for secretion
  45. What is the stimulus for TRH, prolactin secretion?
    There is none known
  46. Which anterior pituitary hormone may be under dominant negative control of dopamine?
  47. Dopamine is produced in what part of the hypothalamus
    acruate nucleus
  48. What hormone is produced in the acruate nucleus of the hypothalamus?
  49. Estrogens provide what type of feedback for prolactin?
  50. What can override hypothalamo-pituitary drive of endocrin axes?
    Higher centers of the brain
  51. Chronic stress can override what negative feedback loop?
    CRH adn ACTH
  52. Chronic stress can cause a loss of what two Hypothalamic hormones?
    GnRH and GHRH
  53. GnRH and GHRH are affected by high stress in what way?