Card Set Information
2010 anatomy final exam review
How many calories equal 1 pound of body fat?
What is anemia?
Having too few red blood cells or too little hemoglobin
What are antibodies?
Produced in response to the presence of a nonself antigen
What are antigens?
Chemical that stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies
What is an aorta?
An artery that receives blood from the left ventricle
What is arteriosclerosis?
The hardening of blood vessels
What is arterosclerosis?
The narrowing of arteries
What is an atria?
It receives blood from body and it is the top 2 chambers in the heart
What is an atrialventricular node?
A specialized mass of cardiac muscle fibers that transmits cardiac impulses from sinoatrial node to ventricles and causes them to contract
What are the blood protein types and their information?
Serum albumin- regulates osmotic pressure and maintains blood volume
Serum globulin- produces antibodies
fibrinogen- aids in clot formation
What is a calorie?
The amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree
What are capillaries?
Small blood vessel that connects veins to arteries
What are the information about carbohydrates?
They are an energy source.
3 classifications- polysaccharides, monosaccharides, and disaccharides
What is cardiac muscle?
Cells that work together and gives the body more strength.
Found in the heart.
What is the cardiac sphincter?
A thick ring of smooth muscle and prevents reflux of gastric contents from the stomach to the esophagus
What is cholesterol?
Foud in cell membranes, helps synthesize bile salts, vitamin D, and steroid hormones.
Sources- saturated fats (eggs,meats, dairy)
What is a coenzyme?
Organic molecule that activates certain enzymes
What is the common bile duct?
It empties things into the duodenum and unites with the cystic duct
What are coronary arteries?
Supplies blood to the wall of the heart
What is diastolic pressure?
Lowest arterial blood pressure reached during diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle
What is an edema?
The accumulation of fluid within tissure space
What is emulsification?
The conversion of big fats to little fats
What is the epiglottis?
Flap like structure that closes trachea during swallowing and prevents food from entering the lower respiratory tract
What are erythrocytes and their information?
red blood cells that are produced in red bone marrow. 1-120 days lifespan. transports oxygen
What are the types and characteristics of fats?
Types- saturates, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated.
Functions- energy source, builds myelin sheath, makes cells membrane, and hormones
What is the gall bladder?
Store bile and has walls with smooth muscles
What is a glycoprotein?
A compound composed of a carbohydrate and protein
What is HCL?
Secreted by parietal cells in stomach to deactivate amylase
What is the general information about the heart?
Foundin thoracic cavity, 70-80 beats per minute, and has 4 chambers
What are the heart valves?
mitral valve, pulmonary valve, and aortic valve.
They keep the blood flowing in 1 direction
What is hemoglobin?
Oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells
What is hemophilia?
An inherited clotting disorder
What is heparin?
Stops spontaneous clotting produced in liver
What is the hepatic duct?
Connects liver to the common bile duct
What is high densite lipoprotein (HDL)?
Good cholesterol. Helps remove excess cholesterol from artery walls and transport back to the liver
What is hydrolysis?
Adding water molecules to split a molecule into smaller portions
What is the ileocecal sphincter?
Prevents chyme from leaving small intestine early and allows the passage of chyme into large intestine
Know the movement of blood through the heart
what is lacteal?
the lymphatic capillary with a cillus of the small intestine
what are leukocytes and their information?
white blood cells. some have amoebid type movement.
has nucleus, but no mitosis (if normal)
1 wbc= 700 rbc
1-14 day lifespan
what is the live information?
2 lobes- right and left.
functions- carb+lipid+protein metabolism, storage, bile secretion, detoxification, and blood filtering.
what is a low density lipoprotein?
bad cholesterol. transports cholesterol to other cells. deposited in artery walls during high concentration.
what are macronutrients?
the nutrients required in large amounts (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)
what is mesentery?
a fold of peritoneal membrane that attaches an abdominal organ to the abdominal wall
what are micronutrients?
the nutrients required in small amounts (vitamins and minerals)
what is the information on minerals?
functions- heartbeat, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, gas transport, muscle contraction, metabolism, synthesis of hormones/enzymes, and builds teeth/bones.
what is monomorphonucleated?
they produce antibodies, chemical defnse, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
what is the pancreatic duct?
the place where pancreatic juices are excreted into the duodenum
what is the pericardial cavity?
The space between the visceral and parietal pericardial membranes
what is pericardial fluid?
It fills the space between the membrane and the heart
what is the pericardium?
serous membrane that surrounds the heart
what is peristalsis?
wave-like motion and pushes ingested food forward
what is the peritoneum?
serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and encloses the abdominal viscera.
what are phagocytosis?
process which a cell engulfs and digests solids
what is plasma?
fluid portion of circulating blood
what is polymorphonucleated?
phagocytes, mechanical digestion, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
what are the characteristics and types of proteins?
types- complete and imcomplete.
functions- enzymes, contractile proteins, collagen, certain hormones, antibodies.
what is a pyloric sphincter?
A thick ring of smooth muscle that prevents chyme from leaving the stomach early
what is a rho-gam?
an anti-RH+ antibody serum for mothers with an AH-baby
what are the characteristics of saturated fats?
solid at room temperature. comes from animals.
what is a sinoatrial node?
Specialized tissue that initiates cardiac cycle: pacemaker, regulates heartbeat, and atria contracts
what is the information on the small intestine?
parts- duodenum, jejunum, ileum
secretions- mucus, serous fluid, digestive enzymes
what is streptokinase?
medicine to dissolve blood clots
what is systolic pressure?
peak arterial blood pressure reached during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle.
what are thrombocytes and their information?
platelets. They aide in clotting. smallest blood cells.
what are the characteristics of unsaturated fats?
good. liquid at room temperature. come from plants.
what is a vagus nerve?
medulla sends an impulse by means of the nerve to the heart.
what are ventricles?
hey receive blood from atria and contract to force blood out of the heart into arteries.
what are the villi?
fingerlike projections that extend outward from the lining of the small intestine.
what are the information on vitamins?
they speed up metabolism and form parts of coenzymes.
what is hypertonic?
solution with a greater osmotic pressure then the solution with which it's compared.
what is hypotonic?
solution with a lower osmotic pressure then the solution with which it's compared.