inorganic test 2

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inorganic test 2
2013-03-31 20:53:03
acid base hard soft naming inorganic molecules bentism

acid/base, hard/soft, naming inorganic molecules, bentism
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  1. 1,10-phenanthroline
  2. aqua
  3. ethylenediamine
  4. ammine
  5. acetylacetonato
  6. oxolato
  7. pyridine
  8. 2,2'-bipyridine
  9. bromo
  10. chloro
  11. iodo
  12. carbonyl
  13. cyano
  14. hydroxo
  15. oxo
  16. (py)
    • Pyridine
  17. (en)
    • ethylenediamine
  18. (acac)
    • acetylacetonato
  19. (ox)
    • oxolato
  20. (bpy)
    • 2,2'-bipyridine
  21. (phen)
    • 1,10-phenanthroline
  22. Define arrhenius acid and base
    Arrhenius acids form hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.

    Arrhenius bases form hydroxide ions in aqueous solution.
  23. Define Bronsted-Lowry acid/base
    An acid is a species with a tendency to lose a hydrogen ion

    A base is a species with a tendency to gain a hydrogen ion.
  24. Solvent System Acid/Base
    The acid is the cation resulting from autodissociation of the solvent.

    •      The solute that adds the [cation] is  
    •      considered an acid.

    The base is the anion.

    •      The solute that adds to the [anion] is 
    •      considered a base.
  25. Lewis acid/base
    Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor.

    Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.
  26. What is a characteristic of hard acid and bases?
    Hard acids and bases are small and nonpolariable (cannot by partial positive/negative hence its small size)
  27. What is a characteristic of soft acid and bases?
    Soft acid and bases are larger and more polarizable.
  28. Which is stronger?  A hard acid--Hard base, or a Hard acid--soft base?
    The hard to hard and soft to soft are stronger bonds.
  29. What does polarizable mean?
    The degree to which a molecule or ion is easily distorted by interaction with other molecules or ions.
  30. Characteristic of hard acids?
    any cations with large positive charge (3+ or larger), or those whose d electrons are relatively unavailable for pi bonding. (e.g., alkaline earth ions, Al3+), also Cr3+ , Mn2+ , Fe3+ , and Co3+
  31. What is the formula for Pauling's Rule?
    pKa=8-5n, where n is the number of oxo groups
  32. number of oxo groups in HClO4?
    3 oxo groups
  33. number of oxo groups in H2SO4?
    2 oxo groups
  34. number of oxo groups in H3PO4?
    1 oxo group
  35. For the paulings rule determination of pKa.  What number do you add for each H removed?
    5, for example,

    • H3PO4
    • 8-(5*1) = 3

    • H2PO4
    • 3 + 5 = 8

    • HPO4
    • 8 + 5 = 13
  36. What happens dissolve s- block oxides in water?
    Hydrolysis of s- block oxides in water yield bases...

    • CaO + H2O ⇌ Ca(OH)2
    • Na2O + H2O ⇌ 2NaOH
  37. What happens when p- block oxides are dissolved in water?
    Hydrolysis of p- block oxides lead to acids.

    • CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3
    • N2O5 + H2O ⇌ 2HNO3
    • SO3 + H2O ⇌ H2SO4
  38. Acidity of metal cations in water
    many cations are acid by hydrolysis

    [M(H2O)n]z+ + H2O ⇌ [M(H2O)n-1(OH)]z-1  + H3O+
  39. What are the effects of metal cations in water based on charge and size?