chm test

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chm test
2013-03-31 22:28:28

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  1. Kinetic molecular theory 
    A model that describes the behavior of ideal gases in terms of tiny particles that are in constant, random motion.
  2. Boyle's Law 
    The volume, V, occupied by a sample of gas is inversely proportional to pressure,P, at constant temperature.

    P1V1 = P2V2
  3. Charles's Law
    The volume, V, occupied by a sample of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature, T, at constant pressure.

    V1/T1 = V2/T2
  4. Gay Lussac's Law
    • For sample of gas with a constant volume, its pressure, P, is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature, T.
    • P1/T= P2/T2
  5. Vaporization
    The process by which molecules of a volatile liquid break away or escape and go into the gas.
  6. Condensation
    The conversion of a vapor to a liquid by cooling the vapor.
  7. Difference between vapor and condensation...
    Vapors are gasses.. 

    condensation is a liquid or solid formed from a gas cooling off...
  8. Temperature Conversions
     F = 9/C +32                     K = C +273

    C = 5/9 (F - 32)                 C = K - 273
  9. Solution

    A system in which one or more substances are uniformly and homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance.
  10. Solute
    One of the components of a solution - the substance which has been dissolved.
  11. Solvent
    one of the components of solution - The substance which does the dissolving.
  12. Soluble
    Capable of being dissolved. 
  13. Solubility
    Usually expressed as the maximum number of grams of a substance solute which will dissolve in 100 grams of solvent at a definite temperature.
  14. Dilute Solution
    Contains a small of solute in comparison to the amount of solvent.
  15. Saturated solution
    A solution which contains all the solute it can dissolve at a given temperature. (Rate of crystallization is equal to the rate of solution; an equilibrium has been reached).
  16. Concentrated Solution 
    Contains a large amount of solute in comparison to the amount of solvent.
  17. Unsaturated Solution 
    All solution containing less solute than it could normally dissolve at a given temperature.
  18. Supersaturated Solution 
    Any solution containing more solute than it can normally hold or dissolve at a given temperature.
  19. Miscible
  20. Non - Miscible
  21. Heterogeneous Mixture
  22. Homogeneous Mixture
  23. Dynamic Equilibrium
  24. Percent Solutions
    A solution whose solute and solvent have a definite relationship. A 5% solution of sugar contains 5 grams of sugar for every 95 grams of water.
  25. Molar Solutions
    Contains one mole of solute per one liter of solution.
  26. Molal
    Contains one mole of solute dissolved in 1,000 grams of solvent. 
  27. Normal Solutions
    Contains one gram-equivalent weight of solute in which sufficient solvent has been added to make a total of one liter of solution. the equivalent-weight is taken as the gram-molecular weight of the substance divided by the total positive valence number.
  28. True Solution 
  29. Suspention
    A nonuniform mixture of insoluble particles which slowly settle on standing. Suspensions are usually opaque and cloudy.
  30. Colloidal Dispersion
    A suspension in which the suspended particles readily pass through ordinary filters and do not settle out on standing. Colloidal suspensions will reflect a powerful beam of light. This indication of the presence of colloid particles is called the Tyndall Effect.
  31. Tyndall Effect 
    A beam of light passing through a colloidal solution.

    Ex. The light at the movie theater that originated from the projection booth and ends at the screen.
  32. Ionization
    The Formation of ions from individual atoms.
  33. Dissociation
    The process whereby a chemical substance breaks up into simpler component parts (molecules or ions) when it melts or when it dissolves in a solvent.
  34. Osmosis
    The selective passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane.
  35. Diffusion 
    the spontaneous mixing of gases at constant pressure.