Ch 23 Respiratory System

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Ch 23 Respiratory System
2013-04-02 17:12:32
23 Respiratory System

Ch 23 Respiratory System
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  1. Name the structures which comprise the respiratory system.
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
  2. Which structures are considered to be part of the upper respiratory system ?
    Comprised of the nose and the pharynx
  3. Which structures are considered to be part of the lower respiratory system ?
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
  4. Compare the function of the conducting portion of the respiratory system to that of the respiratory portion of the respiratory system.
    Series of tubes that will carry air from the nose to the lungs
  5. What are the two main portions of the nose ?
    • External Nose
    • Internal Nose
  6. Describe the structure of the external nose.
    • Framework made of cartilage & bone
    • covered with muscle and skin
    • Lined with mucous membrane
  7. What are the external nares ?
  8. What are the functions of the internal structures of the external nose ?
    • Smell
    • Take in Air
    • Warm/ filter/ moisten air
    • resanince chamber (for speech)
  9. Describe the structure of the internal nose.
    • Inferier to the nasal bone
    • Superier to the mouth
    • Lined with muscle and mucous membrane
  10. What are the internal nares ?
    Opening into the back of the nose (into pharynx)
  11. What structures open (drain) into the internal nose ?
    • Paranasal sinus
    • Naso lacrimal ducts
  12. Where is the vestibule of the nose ?
    Right side of the external nares
  13. Briefly describe the structure and function of the nasal septum.
    Partition that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves
  14. What is the function of the olfactory epithelium ?  Where is it located ?
    Contains olfactory receptors

    Upper portion of nasal cavity in mucous membrane & in concay
  15. What is the pharynx ?
    Extends from nose to larynx and epiglotous.
  16. What are the functions of the pharynx ?
    • Passage way for air and food
    • Tonsils there
    • Used for speech and vocalization
  17. What are the three regions of the pharynx ?  Briefly describe the location of each of the
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  18. Name the structures which open into the nasopharynx.
    • Goes from soft palate to hyoid
    • from level of hyoid to larynx to esophagus.
  19. What are the functions of the nasopharynx ?
    • Passage way for air 
    • Equalize pressure between pharynx & inner ear
  20. What is the fauces ?
    Opening from mouth into pharynx
  21. What are the functions of the oropharynx ?
    Passage way for air, food, and drinks
  22. What are the functions of the laryngopharynx ?
    Passage way for air, food, and drinks
  23. What two structures does the larynx connect ?
    Pharynx to trachea
  24. What is the common name for the larynx ?
    Voice Box
  25. Describe the structure and the function of the epiglottis.
    • Leaf like structure 
    • Made mostly of cartilage
    • Covered by epithelium
  26. Why is the epiglottis important ?
    • Covers respiratory system during swallowing 
    • Directs food to esophigous
    • Prevents food from entering airways
  27. Describe the structures that comprise the glottis.
    • ventricular folds (outside)
    • Vocal chord
  28. Describe the structure and function of the two sets of folds which are present in the larynx.
    • Ventricular folds: Holding breath. Actions involving a lot of exhale
    • Vocal Chords: Vibrate when making a sound
  29. Anatomically speaking, what must you do in order to increase the volume of the sound you make ?
    Increase the amount of air going through vocal chords
  30. Anatomically speaking, what must you do in order to increase the pitch of the sounds you are making ?
    • Change the tension of the vocal chords
    • high=tense
  31. In addition to the vocal cords, what other structures are involved in speech ?
    • Lips
    • Tongue
    • Face Muscles
    • Pharynx
    • Mouth
    • Nose Sinuses
  32. What is the common name for the trachea ?
  33. Where is the trachea in relation to the esophagus ?
    In front of esophagus
  34. What  structures does the trachea connect ?
    Larynx to bronchi
  35. Describe the appearance of the hyaline cartilage bands within the trachea. What does their peculiar shape accommodate? What is their function ?
    • Keeps trachea open
    • U shaped 
    • Allows esophagus to expand during swallowing process
  36. At its base, the trachea splits to form the right ____________
    ____________ and the left ___________ ______________, which go to the
    • At its base, the trachea splits to form the right __primary bronchi___and the left ___primary bronchous ___, which go to the
    • __lungs__.
  37. What is the carina ?
    Rigid at the site where the trachea divides
  38. Describe the subdivisions of the primary bronchi to become the terminal bronchioles.
    • Divide to form secondary bronchi
    • Secondary to trachea
    • Trachea primary to bronchi secondary bronchi
    • Terciary bronchi --> Bronchiole --> to terminal bronchiole
  39. Describe how the distribution of cartilage and smooth muscle changes throughout the bronchial tree.
    • Decrease cartilage (keep tubes open)
    • Increase smooth muscle
  40. Describe the general location and shape of the lungs.
    Cone shaped in thorasic cavity
  41. Describe the two layers of pleura.
    • Visceral Pleura (on organs)
    • Parietal Pleura (lines wall of chest cavity)
  42. Where is the pleural cavity ?  What does it contain ?
    Space between visceral & pleura

    Pleural fluid
  43. What is the function of pleural fluid ?
    Reduces Friction
  44. What happens at the hilus ?
    • Bronchi enter lung at hilus
    • So does anything going to lung
  45. What is the function of the fissures in the lungs ?
    Deep groves that divide each lung into groves
  46. Describe the relationship between  bronchopulmonary segments and alveolar ducts.
    • Primary Bronchus (goes to)
    • Secondary Bronchus
    • Tertiary Bronchus
    • Bronchioles
    • Terminal Bronchioles (lobule)
    • Respirator Bronchioles
    • Alveolarducts (alveolus)
  47. What is an alveolus ?
    Cup shaped pouch that surrounds an alveolar duct
  48. What type of cells make up the walls of the alveoli ?
    Simple squamous (thin so good for gas exchange)
  49. What is the function of surfactant ?  Where is it produced ?
    • Lowers the surface tension of alveoli
    • Makes walls slipery so alveoli don't colapse when exhale 
    • Septal cells in alveoli
  50. What occurs at the respiratory membrane ?  What are the constituents of the respiratory
    membrane ?
    • Exchange of gasses (oxygen, carbon dioxide)
    • Pulminary capillaries & alveoli
  51. 1
  52. List and define the three basic steps of respiration.
    • 1. Pulmonary Ventilation: Breathing
    • 2. External Respiration: Lungs (exchange of gasses)
    • 3. Internal Respiration
  53. What causes air to flow into the lungs ?  What causes air to flow out of the lungs ?
    • -Pressure difference
    • -Air enters lungs when pressure in lungs is less then the pressure in atmosphere
    • -Air enters atmosphere when pressure in lungs is more then the pressure in atmosphere
  54. Besides differences in pressure between the atmosphere and the lungs, what other factors may influence the rate of airflow ?
    • Airway resistance 
    • Surface tension of alveoli fluid
    • Increase tension
    • Compliance
  55. Define inspiration.
    • Inhailing
    • Breathing in
  56. What is Boyle’s Law ?
    Volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure
  57. What must occur within the body in order to decrease the air pressure inside the alveoli ?
    Increase the size of the lungs
  58. What muscles are utilized in order to expand the volume of the lungs ?
    • Diaphram
    • External Intercostals
  59. What happens to the pleurae when the thoracic cavity expands?
    • Stick to the wall of the thorasic cavity
    • When rib goes out so do lungs
  60. Define expiration.
    • Breathing out
    • Exhailing
  61. Why is expiration considered to be a passive process ?
    • No muscular contraction is required
    • Exhaling due to elastic recoil
  62. What two forces contribute to elastic recoil ?
    • Elastic fibers around alveoli connect
    • Inword pull of suface tension due to fluid of alveoli
  63. When does exhalation become active ?  What muscles are involved in active exhalation ?
    • With exercise & wind insturments
    • Use internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
  64. Define tidal volume. 
    What is the average tidal volume for humans ?
    Volume of air that would be moved in one breath (inhale and exhale)

  65. Does all the air inhaled during one breath actually reach the alveoli ?
    No only about 70%
  66. Define the inspiratory reserve volume.  What is the average inspiratory reserve for humans ?
    Additional amount of air that could be inhaled by taking a big breath

  67. Define the expiratory reserve volume.  What is the average expiratory reserve for
    humans ?
    • Amount that you could forcefully exhale following a normal inhale and exhale
    • 1200mL
  68. Define residual volume. 
    What is the average residual volume for humans ?
    • Air that remains in the lungs following a forceful exhale
    • 1200mL
  69. Define minimal volume. 
    How is minimal volume used in forensic science ?
    • Part of residual volume remaining in lungs after thorax was open
    • Trying to find out if babies are born dead or still born
  70. How do you calculate inspiratory capacity ?
    How much the individual can inhale

  71. How do you calculate functional residual capacity ?
    • How much is left in the lungs after a normal exhale
    • ER+RV=
  72. How do you calculate vital capacity ?
    • How much air an individual can move
    • If did a max inhale followed by a max exhale
  73. How do you calculate total lung capacity ?
    • How much air lungs can hold
    • VC+RV=
  74. Why are these various lung volumes and/or capacities useful from a diagnostic perspective ?
    • Indicate emphysema (lung disease)
    • ->always do forceful inhale 
    • ->overdeveloped chest muscles
  75. By what mechanism is oxygen exchanged between the alveolar air and the pulmonary blood ?
    • Diffusion
    • ->need a concentration gradient high pressure to low pressure
  76. What is Dalton’s Law ?
    • Behavior of gas in a mixture
    • Each gas in a mixture exerts it's own pressure as if no other gasses were present
  77. What is the partial pressure of a gas ?  How is it calculated ?
    • Pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
    • Multiply % of gas in mixture by total pressure in mixture
  78. What is the partial pressure of oxygen in inhaled air ?
    • 20.9% Oxygen
    • .209x760mm=158.8mm
  79. What is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in inhaled air ?
    • .04% Carbon Dioxide
    • .0004x760mm= .3mm
  80. How does the partial pressure of a gas affect its movement across cell membranes ?
  81. How do the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled air compare with that of alveolar air ?
    • Oxygen that partial pressure alveolar air is less
    • More carbon dioxide in alveolar air compared to inhaled air
  82. What is Henry’s Law ?
    The quantity of a gas that will disolve in a liquid is propotional  the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility
  83. How much nitrogen gas is dissolved in plasma at sea level?  Why ?
    • Not much
    • Its solubility is very low
  84. What causes deep sea divers to experience the rapture of the depths ?
    Breathing in nitrogen under high pressure
  85. What causes decompression sickness ?  How can decompression sickness be avoided ?
    • Extra nitrogen come out of blood to fast
    • Come up slowly
  86. Describe the process of hyperbaric oxygenation.  What type of disorders is this process used to treat ?
    • Increasing the pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere
    • Increases oxygen going into blood

    Anarobic Infections: carbon monoxide poisoning, trauma, near drowning
  87. Explain why more oxygen will diffuse into your blood as it goes through the pulmonary capillaries if you are exercising.
    • Oxygen will go from high pressure to low pressure
    • lung --> blood
  88. Use the concept of partial pressures to explain why oxygen diffuses into the tissues as it goes through the systemic capillaries.
    Oxygen leaves blood and go to tissues of foot
  89. Briefly discuss each of the four major factors which affect the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange.
    • Partial pressure difference of gasses
    • Surface area available for gas exchange
    • Diffusion differences (distance)(edimial)
    • Molecular weight, solubility of gasses
  90. Why do people develop high altitude sickness when they travel up into relatively high mountains ?
    Pressure of oxygen change
  91. Does oxygen dissolve easily in water ?  How much oxygen is transported in plasma ?
    • No low solubility
    • Only about 15% oxygen inhaled is moving in plasma
    • Attached to hemoglobin in red blood cells
  92. In what form is most oxygen transported in the blood ?
    Binded to red blood cells
  93. What component of hemoglobin binds to oxygen ?  What metal is an important part of this component ?
    Hehe: non protein part (Iron)
  94. How many molecules of oxygen can one hemoglobin molecule carry ?
  95. What is the percent saturation of hemoglobin ?
    How many oxygen's being carried on hemoglobin
  96. What is the most important factor that determines how much oxygen will bind to a hemoglobin molecule ?
    Partial pressure

    • Higher pp more oxygen bind
    • Lower pp oxygen detaches
  97. Why is more oxygen released from hemoglobin as it passes through the capillaries of exercising tissues as compared to resting tissues ?
    • Resting partial pressure 40
    • Exercising partial pressure lower

    More oxygen come off hemoglobin molecule in exercising tissue
  98. How does acidity affect the affinity of  hemoglobin for oxygen ?  How is this beneficial during periods of exercise ?
    • As acidity increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases
    • Lactic acid make tissues more acid hemoglobin release more oxygen
  99. How does temperature affect the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen ?  How is this beneficial during periods of exercise ?
    • As temperature increases 
    • Affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases

    Cause more oxygen to go into the tissues
  100. Name some chemicals which decrease the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Lactic Acid
  101. How does fetal hemoglobin differ from adult hemoglobin in its affinity for oxygen ?  Why is this beneficial ?
    • Fetal hemoglobin has a few different amino acids
    • Fetal hemoglobin has more affinity for oxygen
    • Oxygen is slightly more attracted to fetal hemoglobin
  102. How does carbon monoxide affect the oxygen-carrying capability of hemoglobin ?
    • Carbon Monoxide is more attached to hemoglobin, more then oxygen
    • Need oxygen to make ATP
  103. Name the three forms in which carbon dioxide is carried in the blood.  Discuss the relative abundance of each form.
    • 7% Carbon Dioxide - Dissolved in Plasma
    • 23% Carbon Dioxide - Carried on Hemoglobin Molecule
    • 70% Carbon Dioxide - Bicarbonate Ion
  104. Describe the chemical reaction which occurs when carbon dioxide reacts with water in the presence of carbonic anhydrase.
    • 70% Carbon Dioxide will react with water
    • Make Carbonic Acid
    • Breaks down to form bicarbonate ion
  105. How does the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood affect the pH of the blood ?
    • More hydrogen ions, more acid in blood
    • Lower the pH more acidity blood
  106. Summarize gas exchange and transport in the lungs and in tissue.
    • LUNGS
    • Bicarbonate hook back with hydrogen
    • Makes carbonic acid (H2CO3)
    • Makes Carbon Dioxide (CO2) that you exhale
  107. Name the three areas in the brain stem which control the rhythm of respiration.
    • Medullary Rhythmicity
    • Pneumotaxic Center
    • Apneustic Center
  108. What are the two areas within the medullary rhythmicity center ?
    • Inspuratory
    • Expiratory
  109. Briefly describe the function of the medullary rhythmicity center during quiet breathing.  How does it change during forceful breathing ?
    • Quiet: Inspatory area turned on 2 sec (Diaphragm, intercostals), then off for 3 sec
    • Forceful: Inspatory signals expatory center
  110. Briefly describe the function of the pneumotaxic area.
    • Control the transition (end inhale start exhale)
    • Turn off inhalation (allows you to exhale)
  111. Briefly describe the function of the apneustic area.
    Sends stimulatory messages to inspitory system
  112. Can you voluntarily control your breathing rate?  Why is this advantageous ?
    • Yes, Cortical center (can control inspitory system)
    • can hold breath (under water, bad gasses)
  113. Can a little kid really hold his breath until he dies ?  Why ?
    • no
    • Level of Carbon Dioxide in blood overrides 
    • Pass out and inspitory center turns on
  114. What are chemoreceptors ?
    Sensory neurons that respond to certain chemicals
  115. Where are central chemoreceptors located ? To what chemicals are they responsive ?
    • In brain (near medulla)
    • Monitor levels of carbon dioxide and hydrogen+ in arebral spinal fluid
  116. Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located ?To what chemicals are they sensitive ?
    • Near a blood vessel (aorta, corotic)
    • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Ion, Oxygen
  117. How do the central and peripheral chemoreceptors respond to increased levels of carbon dioxide or H+ in the blood ?
    • Signals inspitory system
    • Increase the rate of respiration
  118. How do the chemoreceptors respond to decreased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood ?
    • Do not respond
    • Lets inspitory system set pace
  119. What are proprioceptors ? How do proprioceptors affect breathing rate ?
    • Located in joints/muscles
    • Monitor movement of joints/muscles
    • Signals inspitory center with change of movement
  120. Where are the baroreceptors which affect breathing rate located ?  What happens when they become stretched?
    • Pressure receptors in bronchi of lungs
    • Respond when they get stretched (Inhale)
  121. Identify several other factors that contribute to the regulation of the breathing rate.
    • Limbic Area of the brain (Anxiety, Anticipation)
    • Increase temperature, Increase Breath rate
    • sharp pain (deep breath --> apnea)
    • Chronic Pain (Increase respiration rate)
    • Irritation of airways (apnea --> cough)
    • Blood pressure increases (respiration rate decreases)
    • Stretch anal sphincter (Increase respiratory rate)
  122. How does exercise affect ventilation ?
    • Breathing rate increases right when move (changes in neuro system)
    • Breathing rate increases more when continue to move more (Increase oxygen, Increase Carbon Dioxide, Increase temperature)
    • Breathing rate increases more when continue to exercise (Lactic acid and carbon dioxide in blood)