Erythrocytes

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Author:
ncrook
ID:
210614
Filename:
Erythrocytes
Updated:
2013-05-01 21:26:49
Tags:
Characteristics Erythropoietin Maturation Erythropoiesis Morphology Inclusions
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Characteristics, Erythropoietin, Maturation, Erythropoiesis, Morphology, Inclusions
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  1. What is the function of RBCs and what is required for normal function?
    • Oxygen transport
    • Removal of metabolic waste
    • Loss of the nucleus is required for normal function
  2. What is the normal life span of a RBC?
    120 days
  3. Name the maturation, in order of RBCs
    • Pronormoblast (rubriblast)
    • Basophilic normoblast (prorubricyte)
    • Polychromatophilic normoblast (rubricyte)
    • Orthochromic normoblast (metrarubricyte)
    • Reticulocyte
    • Mature erythrocyte
  4. What do retics contain?
    Mitochondria and ribosomes
  5. What stain is used to see retics?
    New methylene blue - a supravital stain
  6. What is the cell is the best indicator of bone marrow function?
    Reticulocyte count
  7. What is the reference range of RBCs?
    • Females: 4.0-5.4 x 1012/L
    • Males: 4.6-6.0 x 1012/L
  8. What regulates erythropoiesis?
    Erythropoietin, which is produced by the kidneys
  9. Name things needed for erythropoiesis
    • Iron: must be in the ferrous state (Fe2+)
    • Amino acids: Globin chain synthesis
    • Folic acid/Vit B12: DNA replication/cell division
    • Erythropoietin
    • Vit B6 (pyridoxine)
    • Trace minerals
  10. What is associated with macrocytes?
    • Megaloblastic anemia of liver disease or accelerated erythropoiesis
    • Normal in newborns
  11. What is the morphology of RBCs with MCV >100 fL?
    Macrocytes
  12. What is the morphology of RBCs with MCV <80 fL?
    Microcytes
  13. What clinical conditions are associated with microcytes?
    • Iron deficiency anemia
    • Thalassemia
    • Sideroblastic anemia
    • Anemia of chronic disease
  14. What morphology is associated with RDW >15%
    Anisocytosis
  15. What clinical conditions are associated with Anisocytosis?
    • Post transfusion
    • Post treatment for a dificiency (iron)
    • Presence of 2 concurrent deficiencies (iron and B12)
    • Idiopathic sideroblastic anemia
  16. What is included in echinocytes?
    • Burr cells
    • Crenated cells
  17. What clinical conditions are associated with echinocytes?
    • Liver disease
    • Uremia
    • Heparin therapy
    • Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  18. What clinical conditions are associated with acanthocytes?
    • Alcoholic liver disease
    • Post splenectomy
    • Abetalipoproteinemia
    • Caused by excessive cholesterol in the membrane
  19. What clinical conditions are associated with target cells?
    • Liver disease
    • Hemoglobinopathies
    • thalassemia
    • Iron deficiency anemia
  20. What morphology has a decreased surface-to-volume ratio?
    Spherocytes
  21. What clinical conditions are associated with spherocytes?
    • Hereditary spherocytosis
    • G6PD deficiency
    • Immune hemolytic anemias
  22. What clinical conditions are associated with tear drops (dacrocytes)?
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Thalassemia
    • Extramedullary hematopoiesis
  23. What clinical conditions are associated with sickle cell?
    Hemoglobinopathies SS, SC, SD, and S/beta-thalassemia
  24. What causes RBCs to turn into sickle cell?
    • Contain polymers of abnormal hemoglobin S
    • Amino acid substitution
  25. What is another name for tear drop cell?
    Dacrocytes
  26. What is another name for sickle cell?
    Drepanocytes
  27. What is another name for helmet cells?
    Keratocytes or horn cells
  28. What clinical conditions are associated with helmet cells?
    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemias
  29. What clinical conditions are associated with schistocytes?
    • Microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (DIC, HUS, TTP)
    • Thermal injury
    • Renal transplant rejection
    • G6PD deficiency
  30. What clinical conditions are associated with stomatocytes?
    • Liver disease
    • Hereditary stomatocytosis
  31. What clinical conditions are associated with elliptocytes (ovalocytes)?
    • Hereditary elliptocytosis
    • Iron deficiency anemia (pencil forms)
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Thalassemia major
  32. What do NRBCs indicate?
    • Bone marrow stimulation
    • Increased erythropoiesis
  33. What clinical conditions are associated with NRBCs?
    • Thalassemia major
    • Sickle cell
    • Other hemolytic anemias
    • Erythroleukemia
    • Myeloproliferative disorders
  34. What are Howell Jolly bodies made of?
    DNA fragments
  35. What clinical conditions are associated with Howell Jolly bodies?
    • Sickle cell anemia
    • Beta-thalassemia major
    • Other hemolytic anemias
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Alcoholism
    • Post splenectomy
  36. What are basophilic stippling made of?
    Ribosomal RNA
  37. What clinical conditions are associated with basophilic stippling?
    • Thalassemias
    • Megaloblastic anemias
    • Sideroblastic anemias
    • Lead poisoning
    • Alcoholism
  38. What are pappenheimer bodies made of?
    Iron granules
  39. What stain is used to see pappenheimer bodies and what are they called with this stain?
    • Perl's Prussian blue stain
    • Siderocytes
  40. What clinical conditions are associated with pappenheimer bodies?
    • Sideroblastic anemia
    • Hemoglobinopathies
    • Thalassemia
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  41. What are cabot rings made of?
    Fragments of nuclear material
  42. What clinical conditions are associated with cabot rings?
    • Megaloblastic anemias
    • Myelodysplastic syndromes
    • Lead poisoning
  43. What clinical conditions are associated with Hemoglobin C crystal?
    Hemoglobin C or SC disease
  44. What clinical conditions are associated with Hemoglobin SC crystal?
    Hemoglobin SC disease
  45. What clinical conditions are associated with Heinz bodies?
    • G6PD deficiency
    • Beta-thalassemia major
    • Hgb H disease
    • Unstable hemoglobinopathies
    • Drug-induced anemias
  46. What are Heinz bodies made of?
    Denatured hemoglobin
  47. What stain is used see Heinz bodies?
    • Supravital stain
    • New Methylene Blue
  48. Name the malaria parasites
    • P vivax
    • P falciparum
    • P malariae
    • P ovale
  49. What clinical conditions are associated with hypochromasia?
    • Iron deficiency anemia
    • Thalassemias
    • Anemia of chronic disease
    • Sideroblastic anemia
    • Myelodysplastic syndromes
  50. What does polychromasia indicate?
    Indication of reticulocytes
  51. What does rouleaux indicate?
    Abnormal or increased plasma proteins
  52. What clinical conditions are associated with rouleaux?
    • Hyperproteinemia
    • Multiple myeloma
    • Waldenstrom macroglobinemia
    • Conditions that produce increased fibrinogen (chronic inflammation)
  53. What clinical conditions are associated with agglutination?
    • Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • Cold agglutinin disease
    • When RBCs are coated with IgM antibodies and complement

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