Norman Part one 3-31-13
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One of the most basic principles is that the firefighters responsibility is to? 1
Protect life and property.
The most basic principle of firefighting is that? 2
Human life takes precedence over all other concerns.
What Concept states: When sufficient personnel are not available to effect both rescue and extinguishment at the same time, rescue must be given priority? 2
After who many minutes without oxygen, are the victims likely to suffer brain damage. Any longer than that, death is nearly certain. 2
What Concept states: When you don't have sufficient personnel to perform all of the needed tasks, first perform those that protect the greatest number of human lives. 3
The word ______? should be used in discussions of life hazards. A person in a room that is filled with fire isn't _______ ? . 4
What concept states: Remove those in greatest danger first. 5
In regards to Concept 3; those people in the immediate vicinity of the fire are in the greatest danger and should be removed first. The next highest priority are those? 5
Directly above the fire.
In regards to Concept 3, after removal of those in the immediate vicinity of the fire, the removal may well skip a floor or more and shift to the ____Floor ? , because that's where smoke and heat will accumulate most rapidly? 5
In regards to Concept 3, people _____ the fire are usually the last priority. 5
In regards to Concept 3, (removing those in the greatest danger first); someone who is ? may have to be removed immediately, even if he or she is in no apparent danger. 5
Emotionally agitated and threatening to jump
What concept states: When enough personnel are available to perform engine and ladder functions, they must carry out a coordinated fire attack? 5
There are many ways to reduce the life hazard, including removing all the victims, venting to draw the fire away from the victims or give them fresh air, and confining the fire to an isolated area. Quite often, however, the best way is to put the fire out. A ______? uses the best of all these methods to provide the highest level of life safety to the threatened occupants. 5
What concept states: When there is no threat to occupants, the lives of the firefighters shouldn't be unduly endangered. 6
The actions that they take, regardless of the type of incident (Fire) encountered will almost always follow this sequence: ? 7
Locate, confine, and extinguish
The last rule for firefighting is a brief one: ? . This statement simply means that it is impractical to specify actions in advance of every possible scenario. 8
Let circumstances dictate procedures.
One of the rules of safety in potential collapse situations is that, if a building (brick or wood joist or wood frame of standard construction, but not light weight) has been exposed to heavy fire for ? minutes or more, it may be too dangerous to enter. 10
What is COAL WAS WEALTH? 10
- C- Construction
- A- Apparatus and personnel
- L- Life hazard
- W- Water supply
- A- Auxiliary appliances
- S- Street Conditions
- W- Weather
- E- Exposures
- A- Area
- L- Location and extent of fire
- T- Time
- H- Height
In COAL HAS WEALTH, what else can the H? stand for? 10
Hazmat and then move Height up with Area.
What must be the deciding factor in determining tactics and procedures? 11
Of course, not all fires pose a severe life hazard, which is actually the result of several other size up considerations. Time of day, occupancy, ? , and extent of fire.... all combine to endanger victims. 11
Firefighters have several methods of dealing with high life hazards, each of which might be used alone or in combination. ?. The best method, however, is to reduce the life hazard long before the incident occurs. This can be done by imposing occupancy load restrictions, by improving exit facilities, by specifying fire doors and partitions, and finally, by the best method of all for reducing Life Hazards is ? 11
Installing a complete wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system.
Finally, life hazard comes in the following 2 forms: ? 11
Them and us? (civilians and firefighters)
When properly used a ? has proved to be the most effective tool by far for recalling this preplan information. 13
A computer-aided dispatching system (CADS)
Any occupancy that is subject to CADS hazard display should be inspected ? 14
Annually (at least)
Perhaps the biggest impact of time has on firefighting is the ? since the fire has begun. 15
One of the key elements of our Size-up is to estimate how long the fire has been burning and evaluate what ? 15
evaluate the structure for strength in terms of fire resistance
A crucial element is that the time frame does not start with your arrival at the scene, but rather the ? starts when the fire has reached flash over and begun to attack structural elements. 16
Fire that is venting out of windows on two floors typically indicates one of the following two things: prolonged burning greater than ? minutes or the use of an ? 16
10? minutes or use of an accelerant
Look for signs of advanced fire such as fire burning through a wooden wall, (not merely on the surface). This indicates that the fire has been burning for a considerable time before arrival and that ? 17
collapse may be imminent?.
If your overall perception is that there is still a considerable body of fire present that the interior crews have not yet put out, you have the responsibility to ? 17
Order them out
A full 30 minute bottle air cylinder usually only lasts ? minutes under heavy firefighting use.
If the fire was still not showing signs of being under control or at least knocked down, the ringing mask alarm bells acted as another type of alarm, sending the chief a message to ?
think about pulling the crews back out of harms way.
The real problem with the air bottle rule or the 20 minute rule is with light weight construction. 20 minutes is far too long to operate in any lightweight wood construction building! Buildings that were built using plywood I-beams, 2x4 wooden gusset plate trusses, or composite steel and wood trusses, and most Class 2 buildings with metal C-joists or bar joists have all been proven to collapse with as little as ? minutes of fire exposure.
To avoid tunnel vision that sometimes sets in at chaotic incidents and refocus the IC?s attention on elapsed time, some departments use a ? system in which a dispatcher keeps track of the elapsed time and prompts the IC with a reminder via radio.
Construction has many implications, the first of which is the degree of ? which can promote or thwart the spread of fire. 19
Construction has many implications, the second implication is the degree of what ? 19
the degree to which the building itself contributes to the fire load.
The third concern related to a building's construction is the number ? for fire travel 19
number of hidden voids within which fire can travel
The forth concern related to a building's construction is probably the most important to firefighters: ? 19
the ability to resist collapse when threatened by fire.
For this text, buildings are grouped in five types (Catagories) as found in what National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard ? 20
NFPA 220 number the different types of construction and to describe the required fire resistance rating for select structural elements, 20
Roman numeral designation and Arabic numeral subsets
The walls partitions, columns, floors, and roofs of these buildings are non-combustible. The various construction elements are designed to withstand the effects of fire for a limited time and prevent its spread. 20
Class 1 (Type I): fire resistive
The walls, partitions, columns, floors and roofs in these buildings are noncombustible, but they provide less fire resistance than some other buildings. 21
Class 2 Non-Combustible
Ordinary construction consists of masonry or other noncombustible walls with a 2-hour fire-resistance rating. Their floors, roofs, and interior partitions are made of wood. The wood used in these buildings is smaller than heavy timber. It is therefore easier to ignite and offers less resistance to burn-through or collapse. This is how a majority of brick buildings are made. 22
Class 3 ordinary construction brick and wood joists
The exterior walls of these buildings are made of masonry or some other noncombustible material with at least a 2-hour fire resistance rating. The interior columns, beams and girders are of heavy timber (minimum 8x8 for columns) and the floors and roofs are of heavy planks (3 inches thick minimum). 22
Class 4 heavy timber
These structures have walls, floors, and roofs, that are wholly made or in part of wood or some other combustible material. 23
Class 5 wood frame
The ? of a given building are the two obvious concerns during size-up, since they indicate the maximum potential fire area. 23
area and height
The ? of a building is also important to firefighters, since an attack begins from the ? 24
Additionally, the frontage of a building is important as this space provides opportunities for ? 24
In some cases, one building will wrap around another: other times, a building will abut an adjoining structure but widen out toward the rear into a ______or _____ ? shape 24
L or T
There are several locations that create special firefighting problems, including the top floors of most ordinary brick-and-wood buildings, as well as frame structures. The vast majority of these buildings have some type of ? that act as insulation against heat and cold. 25
void space above the top floor, an attic or cockloft
What indicate extremely hot smoke from an intense fire within the building. This is frequently followed by the fire igniting through the openings from which the smoke is issuing. Firefighters should use extreme caution when entering to avoid being caught in a flashover. 27
Heavy rolling clouds, violently twisting skyward
What indicates a fire in the incipient stage. 27
Wispy smoke, light in color
The ? is the firefighters next priority following the life hazards. 27
protection of exposures
Although it is often possible in advance to determine likely exposures hazards, you must verify the extent to which they are threatened when determining the location and extent of the fire. The examination should include ? 27
All 6 sides of the fire area- front and rear, left and right, top and bottom
All of the previous items relate primarily to the enemy: the fire. After you determine all that you can about those items, you must plan your strategy and tactics based on the ? 29
What is closely tied to the apparatus and personnel ? 29
Tests performed by the NFPA, Factory Mutual, Iowa State University and others have determined that flows of ? are sufficient to control fires in areas of light fire loads of ordinary combustibles, provided the area has not been vented. 30
10/gpm for each 100 sq ft of fire area
The presence and serviceability of auxiliary systems deserve ? in any size up. 32
Extreme weather conditions usually have an ? on firefighting efforts. 33
The presence of ? can be one of the most important factors in any size-up. By their very nature, they pose potential problems for firefighters, ranging from health hazards to accelerated fire extension. 34
While saving lives is the primary function of all firefighters, the primary function of engine companies is to ? 35
Get sufficient water on the fire area to extinguish it.
In fact, more lives are saved by ? than any other means since that is how we extinguish fires. 35
Properly positioned and operated hoselines
In the 2nd stage, the fire has greatly increased in intensity. The rooms are either approaching flashover or have passed it. The ceiling temperatures rise rapidly with the accumulation of hot gases. In a well-involved room ceiling temperatures of more than 1300 degrees and large volumes of smoke are common. What's this stage called? 37
The free-burning stage
Doors are among the few useful features that you can distinguish by ? . Even so be careful not to pass one by. 38
touch in the dark
A what, is an invaluable tool for locating the fire under these conditions 38
thermal imaging camera (TIC)
Generally, ? of hose is sufficient for most homes and apartments. 38
one 50 foot length
Should you flake the hose up a stairway or down the stairway leading to the fire floor? 38
Down the stairway, because if fire vents out the original area your line will not get burned
The method of attack most often used in the free-burning stage is the ? . This initially consists of sweeping the ceiling with a straight stream in a side to side or a clockwise circular motion. 39
In a well-involved room fire, the ? , not the ceiling, are the main sources of fuel. 41
the contents of the room
By shutting down the line when no further fire is visible, you won?t disturb the thermal balance too severely within the fire area. Quite often ceiling temperatures in a fire room will reach ? , while those at the floor are in the range of ? a survivable temperature until flashover occurs. 41
If you suspect a backdraft explosion, a possible tactic that should be attempted is ?
to vent the highest portions of the affected area. 42
Most of the elements needed for a successful indirect attack are present at third stage fires are, in fact, commonly found only at this stage at structures. These basic requirements are as follows: 44
- High heat conditions throughout, the area
- limited ventilation of the fire area
- A point on the perimeter in which to make a small opening for the injection of a 30 degree fog pattern into the superheated atmosphere.
- No endangered occupant who might require rescue.
The 4 key requirements of an indirect attack are as follows: 45
- No occupants
- Limited ventilation
- High heat
- Limited size of the potential fire area
Some of the advantages(5) of the indirect method of attack are the following: 48
- It can reduce firefighter's exposure to potential backdraft situation
- Under the proper circumstances, this method can extinguish fires in areas where the heat condition denies entry to firefighters.
- At times, the indirect attack allows a very limited crew to extinguish more fire than would be possible using the combination attack.
- The indirect method often uses less water for extinguishment.
- Water damage may be less than occurs from using other methods.
Some disadvantages(5) of the indirect method of attack are the following: 48
- It cannot be used in an occupied building
- The presence of ventilation openings will dilute the effect of the steam
- A discharge of less than the critical volume can push fire ahead of the steam, an effect that may not be observed from the outside.
- It isn't possible to view the interior layout until you have gained control of the situation
- Using the indirect method can actually increase water damage.
What is the overall strategy used to fight each fire. The 3 possible choices are the following: 49
- To initiate an offensive attack
- To establish defensive positions
- To take no action at all
This is sometimes necessary when conditions pose an undue threat to firefighters lives such as a potential BLEVE, a potential danger at all incidents where fire impinges on closed containers of liquid, what option should you choose? 50
The last option, to conduct no attack at all
A cardinal rule of aggressive firefighting, is not to ? . To do so is to push the fire and its by-products right back into the structure, where you expect to find live victims. 51
Use an outside stream in an occupied building?
Are there any more people inside who can be saved?? As long as the answer to that question is yes, all of resources should do what, even though the fire may extend greatly during the time it takes to perform the rescue. 51
must remain committed to the task of saving lives
Buildings with large floor areas, even without life hazards, demand how many fireifghters? to drag 300 or more feet of hose up stairways, down corridors and around corners. Remember, concentrate on getting that first line into operation before you split your crews or start another difficult stretch with an insufficient number of personnel. 52
6, 7 or even more firefighters
firefighters making an offensive attack should ? 52
be moving forward almost constantly.
The two lines operating side by side should be able to advance. A good rule of thumb when committing this second line is that it should be ? 52
at least as large as the original hoseline.
When effective offensive attack isn't possible or hasn't succeeded within ?minutes, prepare defensive positions. 54
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