# Norman Part two 5-26-13

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1. When an interior attack is neither possible nor practical, fire traveling in void spaces has? 55
2. A final guide for engine company firefighters is ? . If you even suspect that hoseline are needed at a given location, go ahead and call for it. 55
When in doubt, lay it out.
3. The first consideration, required volume, is relatively simple. In fact, formulas that can predict the required amount of water flow have been devised based ? 58.
on the volume of the area and the weight of the fire load.
4. The formulas for required volume, discussed in chapter 2, vary from ? .58
15gpm/100Sq ft in a low-fire-load setting to 60gpm/100sq ft for high-fire-load areas.
5. One statement that is often heard in justification of replacing 2 ½-in. hose with newer, smaller-diameter lines is, ? With the new 1 ¾ or 2-in. hose and automatic nozzles, we can maintain the same flow as with the 2 1/2 in. line. ? 62
This simply isn't true. The laws of hydraulics do not change because of hose or nozzle design.
6. As a rule of thumb, what is the maximum length for 1 ½ if you want to flow 125 gpm? 64
4 lengths (200 ft)
7. As a rule of thumb, what is the maximum length for 1 ¾ hose if you want to flow 150 gpm? 64
6 lengths.
8. As a rule of thumb, what is the maximum length for 2"? hose if you want to flow 190 gpm? 64
6 lengths
9. To avoid stretching short, you must stretch enough hose to cover the entire fire area and often the floor above the fire. How much hose is enough? 66
A good rule of thumb is to have enough hose to equal the width of the building plus the depth of the building plus one length for each floor above or below the level that the fire is on.
10. When the location or extent of the fire is in doubt, however, stretch sufficient hose to cover the entire structure. A good way to ensure that you have correct amount of hose is to have the nozzle team arrive at the fire area with ? 66
With 1 or 2 lengths to spare.
11. If no stairwell is present and if the fire is on the fourth floor or higher, stretching hose around the elevator becomes a very lengthy, tiring, and personnel-intensive operation. An excellent alternative is to ? 69
Use a rope to haul the line up on the outside of the building.
12. This method, (using a rope to haul the line up on the outside of the building), can also be used to bring a line up to a fire escape or to the roof. A word of caution on the fire escape line: This may be a fast way to get water on the fire, but ? 72
It shouldn't be the first method you try.
13. It should be taboo to stretch a handline directly off the end of a ladder pipe or from an outlet on a platform unless ? 72
The fire is in the final stages and the line is to be used strictly for overhauling.
14. In deciding where to position hoseline, remember the following priorities: ? 73
Protect human life, confine the fire and then extinguish it.
15. Deciding where to position hoselines, usually involves placing a hoseline ? 73
Between the fire and the victims.
16. Placing hoseline between the fire and victims, is in fact, the highest priority for hoseline positioning. Keep in mind that in unusual circumstances ? 73
A separate line may be required to protect each individual rescue.
17. In any multilevel building, except for the need to place hoselines to protect a specific life hazard the main priority must be to position a hoseline ? 73
To protect the interior staircases.
18. A particularly dangerous situation occurs when the fire involves the means of egress from the building. When a fire begins in a lobby or stairway, waste no time stretching through from a remote area. It is of the utmost importance in this case to get water on the fire as soon as possible to ? 75
Keep the primary route of escape open.
19. Many fires that occur in the means of egress are the result of ? 75
Arson or involve accelerants and are particularly deadly events. Speed is of the essence.
20. The most severe threat would be to a window in the opposite exposure directly in line with and slightly higher than it. Barring direct-flame contact, the most severe threat is ? 77
From radiant heat, which travels in straight lines.
21. As a rule of thumb, no nozzle should have an opening greater than ? 80
Half the diameter of its supply.
22. Two main types of fog nozzle are currently in use: ? 82
Constant gallonage and constant-pressure (or automatic) nozzles.
23. It is a good idea always to ensure that when beginning operations the manual setting is at the nozzle?s ? 83
Maximum flow.
24. Constant-pressure or automatic nozzles are the most recent improvement in nozzle design. The basic concept is they use ? 83
A spring to regulate the size of the discharge opening.
25. When using any cellar nozzle, place a gate valve ? 86
One length behind the nozzle
26. High-ex is an extremely expanded solution of water and detergent from a ratio of ? 86
400:1 to 1000:1
27. What is the primary function of high ex? 86
To fill an enclosure, thus pushing out the products of combustion and replacing them with a water solution which will cool the source of the fire.
28. High-ex foam has primarily been used as a ? 87
Defensive tool when the troops have been pushed out of a cellar and nothing else seems to be working.
29. When high ex foam is discharged into an area ? 87
An opening must be provided near the upper spaces, preferably opposite the place where the foam is being injected to allow the heat, smoke and flame to escape as it is pushed ahead of the advancing blanket.
30. Of all the factors affecting ladder selection, whether for purchasing or use, the single most important item must be it's ? 174
Length
31. If a firefighter is to ventilate a window by breaking it while working from the ladder, the best position for the tip of the ladder is ? 177
Even with the top of the window frame, just off to the upwind side of the objective.
32. When raising an aerial to the roof??, the ladder itself should remain ? from the building. 183
An inch or two out?..This avoids placing a strain on any parapet walls and allows the truss construction of the ladder to perform as designed.
33. When positioning an aerial, it is very important to make sure that the ladder is placed ? 183
As square to the building as possible.
34. Rule #1 of forcible entry? 202
Try before you pry
35. Rule #2 of forcible entry? 202
Don't ignore the obvious
36. Rule #3 of forcible entry?202
If possible, use the door that the occupants normally use to enter or exit the premises.
37. Rule #4 of forcible entry? 202
Maintain the integrity of the door
38. Most of the storefronts erected since the 1960?s have aluminum framing for the plate-glass windows and doors??.. There is no way to spread that far enough away from the jamb without destroying the door frame and breaking the glass, plus occasionally breaking the plate glass show window alongside. In addition if you do decide to break the glass, there is an aluminum push bar inside at waist height that forces you to crouch and crawl over the shards. This push bar can be removed, if need be, by ? 218
Hammering straight in on it, thereby stripping the threads off the aluminum bolt. This should be the last choice of entry methods, because it is dangerous and takes more time than through the lock entry.
39. With Mul-T-lock Doors, assuming there are no other alternatives, the fastest means of gaining entry is by using a ? 227
A circular saw with a metal-cutting blade. Cut a triangular-shaped hole in the lower half of the door on the side between the Mul-T-lock cylinder and the door.
40. Depending on their means of operation, gates are classified as 3 types ?227
Manual, mechanical or electrical.
41. Manual and mechanical gates are the most common as well as simplest to force. Electrical gates pose difficulties and ? 227
May have to be cut open.
42. The fastest means of forcing multiple locks is by using ? 229
Power tools, either an oxyacetylene or oxy-MAPP (methylacetylene propadiene stabilized) gas torch or a circular saw with an aluminum oxide blade.
43. What method offers many advantages in terms of firefighter safety over the teepee cut? 233
Three-cut
44. The natural tendency is for heated gas to rise. When restrained from rising, it spreads out horizontally and then starts to bank down. This is called ? 254
The mushroom effect.
45. There are several ways to prevent this horizontal spread. Build a fire resistive partition, position a countering hose stream, or perhaps the most effective and efficient way, ? 254
Let the gases continue on its upward journey where it wants to go anyway.
46. Many multistory buildings have a skylight over the staircase?..In breaking the skylight, remember that other personnel will be ascending the stairs??.they can take steps to protect themselves?.. They should ? 254
Keep their heads level, looking neither up nor down. They should also hug the wall as they ascend, keeping their hands close to their bodies and off the banister.
47. How then, do we go about searching the premises to maximize the likelihood of finding anybody? The answers to this question are many and complex, but they all begin with one thing ? 278
A plan
48. To be efficient, all searches must be planned events. In other words, there is no room for uncoordinated wanderings. Each member of a unit performing search functions must have a clear idea about ? 278
What to look for, where to look, and how to look.
49. The rescue of an unconscious victim is the ultimate challenge that all firefighters must be prepared for, both ? 278
Physically and mentally
50. When making a primary search of the fire area, it is usually best done by first ? 285
Checking as close to the fire as is safe, then working back toward the entrance
51. Once the visible fire has been brought under control and conditions start to improve, it is time to begin ? 288
The secondary search
52. Your department can take the following 3 steps to immediately help reduce the rates of firefighter injury and mortality even further: ? 295
• Improve hazard awareness and recognition
• Provide emergency escape or self-rescue capability
• Provide rescue capability by deploying RIT's (rapid intervention teams)
53. As soon as possible each firefighter who arrives on the fireground should determine the answers to each of the following 6 questions? 296
• What is the occupancy
• Where are the occupants
• Where is the fire
• How do we get in
• How do we get out when things go wrong
• What is happening to the building
54. The greatest fire related loss of civilian life each year occurs in ? 296
1 and 2 family dwellings
55. Entanglement is a serious fhazard. Everyone who puts on an SCBA should know how to ? 298
Take it off blindfolded and with gloves on while maintaining the facepiece in place and a constant air supply
56. At times, (when entangled) you may need to perform an emergency escape maneuver?? Usually the best thing to do is simply to ? 298
Back up, get down lower, and then proceed, since the entanglement is usually between the cylinder and wearer's back
57. The ? is a simple task that allows firefighters wearing SCBA to squeeze through narrow spaces. The most common use for this technique is to get through the space between a building and a fire escape. 298
Reduced-profile maneuver
58. When there is fire rolling out of the top half of the window?.This means a head first exit, sliding over the windowsill. That?s why the tip of a ladder must be placed ? 300
Just at or under the sill when it is placed for routine entry
59. The most common method of forcible exit is to break a window, but if no window is available, you may have to ? 300
Force a door, or even breach a wall to reach an area of safe refuge.
60. If you aren't equipped with a harness but do have a rope it is possible to perform an emergency body wrap. ??The critical points to remember are as follows: ? 306
Don't allow your hands to spread farther than about shoulder width apart. Otherwise you will experience a rapid loss of friction and may fall free of the rope.
61. Performing this technique, (an emergency body wrap) imposes a great deal friction on the body, particularly under the arm pits. Never attempt it without a ? 306
Turnout coat to protect your body, and always wear gloves on both hands.
62. When making an emergency rope escape from a window, ? 306
Roll low over the windowsill to avoid the heat and flame.
63. Control your rate of descent with the friction of the rope as it passes around your body. Do not let your hands ? 306
Get farther apart than your shoulders or you risk falling completely off the rope.
64. One of the key criteria for keeping firefighters alive is to ? 307
Know where they are on the fireground
65. The first part is easily addressed.  Knowing who is on duty. In career departments with on-duty crews, this is most easily accomplished with ? 307
A riding list,? is simply a small sheet of paper listing the names of each on-duty member.
66. One copy of the riding list should be kept by ? 307
The officer on duty, who can use it to conduct a roll call if conditions demand.
67. The other copy of the riding list should be ? 307
Posted in a conspicuous place on the dashboard of the apparatus where it can be retrieved by the officer in command if the officer or the entire company is among the missing.
68. At larger scale operations, it is desirable to leave a third copy of the riding list at ? 307
The command post.
69. At the command post, there must be provisions for recording the locations where units are operating. The simplest is a ? 308
Command chart, which is simply a preprinted form listing each unit, plus the floor and area of the building to which it has been assigned.
70. In addition if it becomes necessary to account for a firefighter, the most important item is a ? 311
71. At an absolute minimum, what should accompany each hose team...311
One radio should accompany each hose team, so one radio may serve two people.
72. Another item that should become mandatory-as SCBA ? 311
Is the PASS device.
73. What is the NFPA standard,(also known as the ?2 IN/2 Out? rule) each requires that at least a two-person RIT be available during the initial stages of a serious fire? 314
NFPA 1500 and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)'s respiratory protection standard
74. Get a ? as your RIT and make sure they know their job. 314
Fully staffed fire company (or two, 2-person companies)
75. If you need a RIT and dont have the manpower, call more. Whether it's through mutual aid, automatic assignments or a recall personnel ? 314
You must provide this capability.
76. The 4 prerequisites to a successful rapid intervention operation are ?
• People
• Policies
• Tools
• Techniques
77. You must arrange for a team to be immediately available at every working fire or special operation. I believe ? people are the absolute minimum to carry out a successful rescue of a downed firefighter in simple circumstances. 315
4 people
78. The dispatch of the RIT should be ? 316
Automatic, usually at the receipt of an alarm for a working fire.
79. The RIT should report to and be under the control of the ? 316
IC or the operations officer if they are forward deployed, as in the case of a fire in a high-rise.
80. One way to minimize the standing-fast syndrome, in which a company watches standoffishly, and does nothing tangible is to use the RIT as an ? 316
Attack company if the fire escalates. By this method a new RIT is designated as each additional alarm is transmitted and the previous RIT is then permitted to operate.
81. If you do choose to call a new RIT and employ the prior RIT as an attack unit, you must ? 317
Wait for the new unit to arrive on the scene, stage their equipment, and receive a briefing on conditions before the first unit leaves the command post.
82. The RIT officer should do the following 4 things? 318
• Attempt to obtain a copy of the building?s floor plan
• Obtain a copy of the command chart or tactical worksheet, indicating which units are operating and where they are located.
• Know the location of the units and their routes of access. **** there are 4 other concerns that should be referenced from the book****
83. Once communication with the trapped members has been established the IC must immediately? 318
Be advised of the number of trapped members and if known, their condition. Then necessary resources such as multiple advanced life support ambulances or additional ladders can be called.
84. As soon as the first report is received that a firefighter is down, 3 things should happen: 328
• First, if not already at the scene, an ALS ambulance should be called
• Second, additional firefighting personnel must be called
• Third, a protective hoseline, a spare mask or RIT pack and a BVM , O2 should be ready to go
85. At most incidents where a firefighter is trapped the best resource you can have is ? 330
86. Much of the work, such as removing debris and transporting the victim will have to be done ? 330
By hand.
87. On a RIT deployment, A clear chain of command is critical in these instances (removing debris), with a ? 330
Single person designated as the victim removal officer. This officer must make the decisions about what steps will be taken and in what order.
88. A far more difficult situation involves rescuing a firefighter that has fallen through a floor or a roof to a lower floor. ?? A last ditch method that requires only a ? 340
Rope may be the only thing that works. This method involves lowering the middle of rope down through the hole to the rescuing firefighters who are with the fallen firefighter. A slip knot is placed around the victim?s wrist or ankles.
89. By hoisting on the extremities the arms are always extended overhead reducing ? 341
The body's profile at the shoulder area which is the widest part of the body when the arms are down.
90. Placing the knot around the victim's ankles and hoisting head-down can also be done ? 341
This serves to anatomically align the head and spine
91. Two factors that have repeatedly shown themselves to be problematic when firefighters are in trouble are the ? 341
Lack of planning to meet emergencies and allowing a panic mode to set in because it is a firefighter who is trapped.
92. Of all the modern styles roofs, wooden bow string truss roofs are? 350
The deadliest style of roof construction per incident (with the exception of the parallel-chord metal trusses involved in the collapse of the World Trade Center)
93. Sometimes the failure of one truss pushes or pulls additional trusses over in a domino-like fashion, leading to ? 352
The destruction of the entire building
94. Remember these roofs, (modern wooden bow string truss), are typically found on industrial and storage buildings; there is little likelihood of a civilian life hazard in these occupancies. The occupants are normally all awake . As soon as they become aware of a serious fire, they ? 352
Will self-evacuate
95. More than ? homes burn every year. 363
425,000
96. Private dwellings (PDs), are responsible for more than ? of civilian fire deaths annually. 363
70%
97. Private dwellings suffer from several defects in design and construction that make them ?364
Uniquely susceptible to the rapid spread of fire.
98. The design of Private dwellings does have one thing in its favor ? 364
Relatively small room size.
99. The proper position for the first engine (using an inline supply) is ? 365
Just past the fire building, unless the fire condition dictates spotting it elsewhere, to use the preconnected master stream (most often for exposure protection)
100. If you arrive to find a serious cellar fire in an older home, you should suspect ? 366
The possibility of balloon framing and take steps to cut off the upward spread of fire.
101. A fire in the cellar of a balloon-frame house is one of the few cases of a lower floor fire where ? 367
Roof ventilation in a Private dwelling will be justified
102. Tactics require that the fire on the outside of the structure, (balloon construction) be darkened down from the outside and that the stream sweep the eaves. The first line should generally be placed to the interior to protect the stairway as usual. However, in densely crowded areas with many homes sheathed in asphalt, the first line may ? 367
Have to be an exposure line.
103. The average house fire where there is no major involvement of such blind spaces as attics or cocklofts, will normally be handled with how many personnel ? 374
6-10 well-trained members that are there to work.
104. Multiple dwellings are buildings that house three or more families. In some areas, they are called apartment houses or tenements. These occupancies pose a high life hazard regardless of ? 375
The time of day due to the varying sleep patterns of the residents.
105. One of the first difficulties that may be encountered (upon arrival of a working residencial fire), is simply to recognize the presence of a ? 375
multiple dwelling.
106. To determine the units in a building, what should you count , since there is usually one per apartment 376
Counting gas or electric meters on the exterior should be a tip off,
107. Once inside the building, the presence of ? usually indicates the presence of single room occupancy or SRO, where a person or even a single family rents a room and shares a toilet and other facilities with other occupants. 376