Personal Trainer Cert

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  1. Muscle Imbalance
    Aleration of muscle length surrounding a joint
  2. Obesity
    The condition of being considerably overweight, and refers to a person with a body mass index of 30 or greater, or who is at least 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height
  3. Overweight
    Refers to a person with a body mass index of 25 to 29.9, or who is between 25-30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height
  4. Blood Lipids
    Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, blood lipids are carried in the bloodstream by protein molecules known as high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins
  5. Diabetes Mellitus
    Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins
  6. Deconditioned
    a state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability
  7. Proprioception
    The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement
  8. Proprioceptively Enriched Enviornment
    An unstable physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms
  9. Muscular Endurance
    A muscles ability to contract for an extended period
  10. Neuromuscular Efficiencey
    The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion
  11. Rate of force production
    Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
  12. Human Movement System
    the combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems
  13. Nervous system
    A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body
  14. Sensory Function
    The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment
  15. Integrative Function
    The ability of the nervous sytem to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response
  16. Motor Function
    the neuromuscular response to the sensory information
  17. Neuron
    The funcational unit of the nervous system
  18. Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
    Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites via receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  19. Interneurons
    transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
  20. Motor (Efferent) Neurons
    Trasmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites
  21. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  22. Peripheral Nervous System
    Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body
  23. Mechanoreceptors
    Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
  24. Muscles Spindles
    Receptors sensitive to change in lenght of the muscle and the rate of that change
  25. Golgi Tendon Organs
    Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscles and the rate of that change
  26. Joint Receptors
    Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint
  27. Articulation
    movement of joints
  28. Axial Skeleton
    Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
  29. Appendicular Skeleton
    Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremeties
  30. Remodeling
    the process of resorption and formation of bone
  31. Osteoclasts
    a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue
  32. Osteoblasts
    a type of cell that is responsible for bone formation
  33. Epiphysis
    the end of long bones which mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production.  Primary sites for bone growth
  34. Diaphysis
    the shaft portion of the long bone
  35. Epiphyseal plate
    the region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis.  It is a layer of subdividing carilaginous cells in which growth in length of diaphysis occurs
  36. Periosteum
    A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all bone
  37. Medullar Cavity
    The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored
  38. Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage
    Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bone
  39. Processes
    Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach
  40. arthrokinematics
    joint motion
  41. Synovial Joint
    Joints that are held togherther by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body
  42. Nonsynovial Joints
    Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage
  43. Ligament
    Primary connective tissue that connects bone together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement
  44. Epimysium
    A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle
  45. perimysium
    the connective tissue that surrounds fascicles
  46. Endomysium
    The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers
  47. Sacromere
    The functional unit of muscle that produces musclular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
  48. Nueral Activation
    The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
  49. Motor Unit
    A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
  50. Nuerotransmitters
    Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
  51. Type 1 muscle fibers
    • slow twitch
    • smaller size
    • slow to fatigue
  52. Type 2 muscle fibers
    • fast twitch
    • larger in size
    • quick to fatigue
  53. Mediastinum
    The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest expcept the lungs
  54. Sinoatrial Node
    A specialized area of cardiac tissue located in the right atrium of the heart which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate
  55. Atrioventricular Node
    A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls the ventricles
  56. Atrium
    The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles
  57. Ventricles
    the inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and in turn forces blood into the arteries
  58. Stroke Volume
    the amount of the blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
  59. Cardiac Output
    Heart rate x stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart
  60. Blood Vessels
    Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body
  61. Arteries
    Vessels that transport blood away from the heart
  62. Capillaries
    The smallest blood vessel, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues
  63. Veins
    vessels that transport blood ffrom the capillaries toward the heart
  64. Aterioles
    Small terminal braches of an artery which end in capillaries
  65. Venules
    The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
  66. Diffusion
    The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body
  67. Maximal Oxygen Consumption
    The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion
  68. Substrates
    The material or substance on which an enzyme acts
  69. Glucose
    A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbs , fats, and protein, which serves as the bodys main source of fuel
  70. Glycogen
    The complex carbs molecule used to store carbs in the liver and muscle cells
  71. Triglycerides
    The chemical of substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body
  72. Gluconeogenesis
    The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids
  73. Adenosine Triphosphate
    Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body
  74. Adenosine Diphosphate
    A high-energy compound occuring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate is formed
  75. B-Oxidation
    the breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids(FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP
  76. Proximal
    Positioned nearest the center of the body, or a point of reference
  77. Distal
    Positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference
  78. Anterior (or Ventral)
    On the front of the body
  79. Posterior (or Dorsal)
    On the back of the body
  80. Medial
    positioned near the middle of the body
  81. Lateral
    positioned towards the outside of the body
  82. Contralateral
    positioned on the opposite side of the body
  83. Ipsilaeral
    Positioned on the same side of the body
  84. Anatomic Position
    position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. 
  85. Sagittal Plane
    An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves
  86. Abduction
    a movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of body
  87. Adduction
    Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body
  88. Transverse Plane
    An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves
  89. Internal Rotation
    Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
  90. External Rotation
    Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body
  91. Horizontal Abduction
    Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position
  92. Horizontal Adduction
    Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position
  93. Scapular Retraction
    Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline
  94. Scapular Protraction
    Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline
  95. Scapular Depression
    downward motion of the scapula
  96. scapular elevation
    upward motion of the scapula
  97. eccentric muscle action
    an eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening
  98. concentric muscle action
    when a muscle is exerting force greather than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle
  99. isometric muscle action
    when a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length
  100. isokinetic muscle action
    when a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion
  101. force
    an influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object
  102. length-tension relationships
    the resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
  103. force-couple
    muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
  104. rotary movement
    movement of the bones around the joints
  105. torque
    a force that produces rotation. common unit of torque is the newton-meter
  106. motor behavior
    motor response to internal and external evironmental stimuli
  107. motor contrl
    how the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response
  108. motor learning
    integration of motor contrl processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permamnent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements
  109. motor development
    the change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan
  110. muscle synergies
    groups of muscle that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement
  111. sensorimotor integration
    the cooperation of the nervous and musclular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement
  112. feedback
    the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the uman movement system in motor learning
  113. internal feedback
    the process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
  114. external feedback
    information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor
  115. extensibility
    capability to be elongated or stretched
  116. dynamic range of motion
    the combination of flexibility and the nervous systems ability to control this rang of motion efficiently
  117. neuromuscular efficiency
    the ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinectic chain in all three planes of motion
  118. postural distortion patterns
    predicatable patterns of muscle imbalances
  119. relative flexability
    the tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistence during functional movement patters
  120. muscle imbalance
    alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
  121. reciprocal inhibition
    the simultaneous relaxation of one muscle and the contraction of its antagonist to allow movement to take place
  122. altered reciprocal inhibition
    the concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist
  123. synergist dominance
    the neuromusclular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover
  124. arthrokinematics
    the motions of joints in the body
  125. arthrokinetic dysfunction
    altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neruormuscular communication at the joint
  126. autogenic inihibition
    the process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles
  127. pattern overload
    consistently repeating the same patter of motion, which may place abnormal stress on the body
  128. Davis' law
    states that soft tissue models along the line of stress
  129. active-isolated stretch
    the process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
  130. dynamic stretch
    the active extension of muscle, using force production and momentum to move the joint through the full available range of motion
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Personal Trainer Cert
2013-04-03 08:57:54
personal trainer exam

Personal Trainer Exam questions
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