Human Body

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Author:
chelsearose91
ID:
210660
Filename:
Human Body
Updated:
2013-04-01 15:56:02
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Endocrine Unit
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Description:
Part 1- Anatomy
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  1. endocrine system produce secretions called?
    hormones
  2. endocrine system works w/ what system to control/coordinate systems & homeostasis?
    nervous
  3. what are the glands of the integumentary system?
    • oil
    • sweat
  4. what glands of the breast?
    mammary
  5. what glands of the mouth?
    salivary
  6. what glands of the eyes?
    lacrimal
  7. what are line mucous membranes throughout the body?
    mucous
  8. pineal gland of brain is endo or ex?
    endo
  9. hypothalamus of brain is endo or exo?
    endo
  10. pituitary gland/hypophysis of brain is endo or ex?
    endo
  11. thyroid gland of neck is endo or exo?
    endo
  12. parathyroid gland of the neck is endo or exo?
    endo
  13. thymus gland of theĀ  mediastinum/chest is endo or exo?
    endo
  14. adrenal gland of the abdominal cavity is endo or exo?
    endo
  15. ovaries of the female is endo or exo?
    endo
  16. testes of the scrotum are endo or exo?
    endo
  17. hormones are secreted by endocrine gland and diffuses into what?
    blood
  18. hormones are carried by what?
    blood
  19. hormones are what kind of messages?
    chemical
  20. what does a hormone bind to that triggers a reaction?
    • specific reaction (organ or tissue)
    • causes the triggering reaction
  21. hormones are classified by what two main categories?
    • protein hormones
    • steroid hormones
  22. protein hormones are made from what?
    • amino acides
    • requires "second messenger" to create the change
    • all are protein hormones except (adrenal cortex, sex glands)
  23. steroid hormones are made from?
    • fatty acides
    • pass directly into target cell/tissue (no 2nd messenger)
    • produced by adrenal cortex and sex glands
    • often ends w/ suffix -one
  24. negative feedback is
    • self regulating
    • info is fed back to gland
    • decrease secretion of hormone
    • most common
  25. positive feedback
    • promotes more of same
    • labor
    • breastfeeding
  26. releasing hormones
    • released from hypothalamuse
    • stimulates release of hormones from pituitary gland
  27. rhythmic patterns (biorhythms)
    • follows cycle of release
    • cycle of monthly period
  28. melatonin is produced by what endocrine gland?
    Pineal gland of brain
  29. what does melatonin do?
    • regulate onset of puberty, menstrual cycle, sleep-awake cycles, mood
    • secretion increases during darkness and decreases w/ light
  30. hyper-secretion of melatonin (of pineal gland) makes what disorder?
    SAD- seasonal affective disorder
  31. do endocrine glands have ducts?
    NO
  32. what is the true "master gland"?
    Hypothalamus
  33. Anti-diuretic Hormone & Oxytocin is produced where?
    • Hypothalamus (brain)
    • stored- in posterior pituitary
  34. hypothalamus of brain and releasing hormones?
    • travels to anterior pituitary through special blood capilaries
    • causes release of hormones from anterior pituitary
  35. hypothalamus of brain and inhibiting hormones?
    • travel to anterior pituitary gland through pecial blood capillaries
    • inhibits release of hormones from anterior pituitary gland
  36. anti-diuretic hormones & oxtocin of hypothalamus produce what hormones?
    release & inhibiting hormones
  37. pituitary gland/hypophysis of brain is in the depression of what bone?
    sphenoid bone
  38. infundibulum attaches what gland to the hypothalamus?
    pituitary gland
  39. what gland is falsely called the master gland?
    pituitary
  40. hormones that stimulate other glands may end in -tropin (for what gland)?
    pituitary
  41. Adenophypiphysis is?
    • anterior pituitary gland- glandular tissue
    • hormones are regulated by releasing/inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus
  42. Neurophphysis is?
    • Posterior Pituitary
    • extension of hypothalamic nervous itssue
    • hormones produced by hypothalamus
    • just stored/released here by pituitary gland
  43. thyroid stimulating hormone (throtropin) (THS) is in what?
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • stimulates thyroid gland to produce their secretion
    • produced w/ metabolism decreases
  44. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is in what gland?
    • (Anterior pituitary)
    • stimulates adrenal glands to produced/release adrenal cortex hormones (Cortisol)
    • protects body when stress occurs
  45. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is what type of hormone and from where is it released?
    • Gonadotropic hormone
    • from anterior pituitary
    • stimulates development of eggs/spermatozoa
  46. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is what type of hormone and where is it?
    • Gonadotropic hormone
    • (anterior pituitary)
  47. luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates what?
    • ovulation
    • secretion of estrogen
    • formation of corpus luteum- produces progesterone
    • interstitial cells in tests to secrete testosterone
  48. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) stimulates what? What gland is it part of?
    • growth of tissues (bone, muscle)
    • stimulates liver to produce growth factors

    anterior pituitary
  49. hypo-secretion of the growth hormone ( Somatotropin) is what ?
    Dwarfism
  50. Hyper-secretion of Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) makes?
    • Giantism
    • Acromegaly
  51. Prolactin (PRL) is what type of hormone? what does it stimulate?
    • growth hormone
    • lactation
  52. Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) [vasopressin] is where, and stimulates what?
    • posterior pituitary
    • stimulates re-absorption of water from urine, returning it bood
    • decreases urine volume, increases blood volume
  53. alcohol inhibits secretion of what hormone, and what does it cause?
    • ADHA- antidemocratic hormone [vasopressin]
    • causes- diuresis
  54. hypo-secretion of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) [vassopressin] is what disease?
    diabetes insipidus
  55. Oxytocin is in what gland, and what does it stimulate?
    • posterior pituitary gland
    • stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in pregnant uterus (inhibits labor)
    • stimulates contraction of smooth muscle around mammary glands allowing lactation
  56. the release of oxytocin (from posterior pituitary gland) is initiated by?
    stretch of cervix near the end of pregnancy and later the breast
  57. isthmus is a middle piece connecting two lobes of what gland?
    thyroid gland
  58. thyroid gland produces what?
    two hormone that regulate metabolism under tsh (thyroid stimulating hormone) from anterior pituitary gland and regulates calcium
  59. throxine (T4) is from what gland and what does it regulate?
    • thyroid gland
    • metabolism
  60. Triiodothryonine (T3) is from what gland, whats is regulate?
    • thryoid
    • metabolism
  61. hyposecretion of triidothyronine (T3) is?
    cretinism- congenital hypothyroidism

    myxedma- acquired hypothyroidism
  62. hypersecretion of Triidothyronine (t3) is what disease?
    grave disease
  63. calcitonine is secrete by what gland, what does it do?
    • thyroid gland
    • lowers blood calcium by sending it to the bone
    • stimulated by hypercalcemia
  64. parathyroid hormone is released by what gland? what does it do?
    parathyroid gland

    • raises blood calcium by releasing it from bone, increasing calcium re-absorption in kidneys,
    • increasing absorption of calcium & phosphorus in small intestine
  65. hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone is?
    • rare
    • causes hypocalcemia
    • hypophosphatemia
  66. hypersecretion (hyperparathyroidism) causes?
    hypercalcemia, osteoporosis
  67. adrenal gland is wehre?
    on top of each kidney
  68. parathyroid gland is where?
    • back side of thyroid,
    • 4 of them
  69. glucocorticoids what from what gland, and what does it do?
    • adrenal cortex of adrenal gland
    • raise nutrients in blood
    • causes amino acids in liver to break down into glucose
  70. cortisol (hydrocortisone) is what hormone and from what gland?
    • its a glucocorticoids of adrenal cortex in adrenal gland
    • released in response to stress
    • produces anti-inflammatory effect by blocking histamine
  71. hypo-secretion of cortisol (hydrocortisone) is what disease?
    Addison Disease
  72. hyper-secretion of cortisol (hydrocortisone) is what disease?
    Cushing Sydrome
  73. mineralcorticoids is a hormone from what gland? what's it do?
    • adrenal cortex of adrenal gland
    • regulates blood electrolytes (mainly sodium)
  74. aldosterone is a hormone of what, where? whats it do?
    • mineralocorticoids from adrenal cortex of adrenal gland
    • targets kidneys- increasing re-absorption of sodium, decreasing re-absorption of potassium
  75. aldosterone directly controls?
    • blood volume, blood pressure, blood pH
    • secretion is stimulated by blood loss, sodium loss, low BP, elevated blood potassium
  76. Gonadocorticoids are a hormone of what? whats it stimulate?
    • adrenal cortex of adrenal gland
    • sex hormones- secreted in both sexes in small amounts
    • stimulates sex drive
  77. Catecholamine is a hormone released by what? whats it do?
    • adrenal medulla of adrenal gland
    • released in response to sympathetic nervous system stimulation
    • epinephrine, norepinephrine
  78. thymus gland is where?
    • lymphoid tissue, composed of largely of WBc
    • has- cortex/medulla
    • produces WBC in infancy
    • atrophies in adult
  79. the ovaries contain two glandular structures, what are they?
    • follicle
    • corpus luteum
  80. estrogen is what, where is it from?
    • ovaries
    • steroid hormone secreted by follicle, stimulated by FSH from anterior pituitary
    • causes maturation of ovum
    • makes growth of endometrial blood vessels
    • causes secondary sex characteristics
    • import. in bone health & blood cholesterol
  81. progesterone is what? form where?
    • steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum that is stimulated by FSH & Lh from anterior pituitary gland
    • cause growth of enometrium & mammary glands
    • sustains pregnancy
  82. testes is where?
    scrotal sac (scortum)
  83. testes has what kind of hormones?
    androgenic
  84. testosterone is what? where is it from?
    interstitial cells that secrete testosterone w/ stimulation of LH from anterior pituitary
  85. maculinizing hormone is what and where?
    • causes secondary sex characteristics, maturation of sperm
    • from testes
  86. inhibin is what and where?
    • hormone stimulated by increasing levels of testosterone, inhibits FSH release
    • from testes
  87. placenta produces what?
    • chorionic gonadotropic (for preg. tests)
    • estrogen, progesterone during pregnancy
  88. stomach produces what?
    hormones that stimulate digestion
  89. small intestines produce what?
    hormones that stimulate digestion
  90. kidneys produce?
    • erythropoietin (stimulates RBC production in bone marrow)
    • its produced when o2 content of blood decreases
  91. atria of heart produce?
    • atrial natriuretic peptide (lowers bp by increasing excretion of sodium in kidneys lowering blood volume)
    • responds to increasing bp, increasing blood volume
  92. many body tissues produce what?
    prostaglandins (constrict/dilate blood vessels, bronchial tubes, intestines)

    • active in inflamm.
    • anti-inflmm. drugs block prostaglandins, decreasing inflmm.
    • used to induce labor
    • overproduction causes uterine cramping

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