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What is Classical Conditioning?
A type of learning in which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another
What is operant conditioning?
What three steps are there in the process of remembering?
What is Encoding?
Transforming info into a form that can be stored in memory
What is storage?
Process of keeping or maintaining info in memory
What is retrieval?
Bringing to mind info that has been stored in memory.
What are the three memory systems?
- Short Term
- Long Term
What is sensory memory?
- temporary storage
- large capacity
- lasts a fraction of a second
What is short term memory?
- Brief Storage for info currently being used
- about 7 item capacity
- lasts less than thirty seconds
What is long term memory?
- Virtually unlimited
- Can last from minutes to lifetime
What is Declarative memory?
- Stores facts, info, and personal life events
- Can be brought to mind verbally as images
- Also called "explicit memory"
What is non-declarative memory?
- Stores motor skills, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses
- Also called "implicit memory"
What is episodic memory?
Records events as they have been subjectively exerienced
What is semantic memory?
Stores general knowledge of objective facts and info
What are the three memory tasks?
What is recall?
- Produce info by searching memory
- uses retrieval cue - any bit or stimulus of info that aids in retrieval
What is recognition?
Identifying material as familiar or as having been encountered before
What is relearning?
retention expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned
What are flashbulb memories?
An extremely vivid memory of the conditions surrounding one's first hearing the news of a surprising, shocking, or highly emotional event
What are the causes of forgetting?
- Encoding Failure
- Decay theory
- Motivated forgetting
- Prospective forgetting
What is an encoding failure?
Info is not put into long term memory
What is the decay theory?
Memories not used will fade with time and ultimately disappear
What is interference?
Info or associations stored hinder the ability to remember it
What are the two types of interference?
- Proactive interference
- Retroactive Interference
What is proactive interference?
Info or experiences already stored hinder the ability to remember it
What is retroactive interference?
New learning interferes with with recall of precious learning
What is motivated forgetting?
Protecting self from painful unpleasant memories
What is repression?
Removing memories of painful events from consciousness
What is prospective forgetting?
Not remembering to do some intended action
What does the hippocampal region help with in the formation of memories?
It helps form semantic memories
What is Anterograde amnesia?
The inability to form long term memories of an event occurring after brain injury or surgery
What does the Hippocampus do in memory?
- Important in forming episodic memories
- Memories can not be retrieved without hippocampal involvement
- Involved in creating intricate neural spatial maps
Why is the posterior of the hippocampal region larger of a London Taxi Driver?
Because that region of the brain is involved with semantic memory
What is Amnesia?
Partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness, brain damage, or psychological cause
What different types of Amnesia are there?
- Anterograde amnesia
What is Anterograde amnesia?
- Loss of memory of events occurring after brain injury or surgery
- Earlier and short term memories generally intact
What is retrograde amnesia?
Loss of memory for experiences that occurred before a loss of consciousness
What is dementia?
Degenerative brain process diminishes ability to remember and process info.
Eyewitniss testimony is the best way to prove someone is guilty.
False, eyewitness testimony is highly subject to error
What is the serial position effect?
info learned in a sequence, recall is better for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items
What is the primacy effect?
tendency to recall the first items in a sequence more readily
What is the redency effect?
tendency to recall the last item in a sequence more readily
What are some ways to improve memory?
- Maintenance rehearsal
- Elaborative Reheasal
- Loci Method
- First Letter technique
- Massed Practice
- Spaced practice
What is spaced practice?
Learning in short sessions with rest periods between
What is massed practice?
Learning in one long practice session without rest periods
What is overlearning?
Practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error
What is maintenance rehearsal?
- Repeating info to keep it in short term memory
- Leads to storage in long term memory
What is elaborative Rehearsal?
Relating new info to something that is already known
What is the Loci Method?
Begin with thinking of locations that are in sequence and then visualize one item to be remembered with each location
What is cognition?
The mental involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using information - these include sensation, perception, imagery, concept formation, reasoning, decision making, and language
What is Reasoning?
A form of thinking where conclusions are drawn from a set of facts
What are the different types of reasoning?
- Reasoning by deduction
- Reasoning by induction
What is reasoning by deduction?
- reasoning from general to specific
- Drawing particular conclusions from general principles
What is reasoning by induction?
General conclusions are drawn from particular facts
What is imagery?
Representation in the mind of sensory experience
What are concepts?
A mental category used to represent a class or group of objects, people, organizations, events, situations, or relations that share common characteristics
What are the three different types of concepts?
What are Formal Concepts?
- A concept clearly defined by a set of rules, a formal definition, or a classification system
- aka "Artificial Concept"
What is a natural concept?
Acquired through everyday perceptions and experiences
What are prototypes?
An example that embodies the most common and typical features of a concept
What are exemplars?
The individual instances, or examples, of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experience
What is the decision making process?
The process of considering alternatives and choosing among them
What is systematic decision making?
Process of considering alternatives and choosing among them
What is bounded rationality?
boundaries or limitations around the decision making process that prevent it from being entirely logical
What is elimination by aspects?
An approach in which alternatives are evaluated against criteria that have been ranked according to importance
What are Heuristics?
A rule of thumb that is derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving, even though there is no guarantee of its accuracy
What is an availability heuristic?
A cognitive rule of thumb that says that the probability of an event or the importance assigned to it is based on its availability in memory
What is a representative heuristic?
Thinking strategy based on how closely a new object or situation is judged to resemble or match an existing prototype of that object or situation
What is framing?
The way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or loss as the outcome
What is intuition?
Rapidly formed judgements based on "gut-feelings"
What is Anchoring?
Overestimation of the importance of a factor by focusing on it to the exclusion of other relevant factors
What is an analogy Heuristic?
Applies a solution that solved in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem
What is working backward?
Heuristic strategy in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem by defining the desired goal and working backward to the current condition
What is a means-end analysis?
Current position is compared with a desired goal, and a series of steps is formulated and then taken to close the gap between the two
What is an Algorithm?
Systematic, step-by-step procedure that guarntees a solution to a problem of a certain type if applied appropriately and executed properly
What is artificial intelligence?
The programming of computer systems to simulate human thinking in solving problems and in making judgements and decisions
What are ANN's?
- Artificial Neural networks
- computer systems intended to mimic human brains
- Deep blue and Deep Junior played chess against Kasparov
What are Expert Systems?
Computer programs designed to carry out highly specific functions within a limited domain
What are some example of Expert systems?
- MYCIN - a program used to diagnose blood diseases and menigitis
- Generates possible hypothesis that doctors may not consider
What is the structure of language?
What are psycholinguistics?
study of how language is acquired, produced, and used and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning
What are Phonemes?
Smallest units of sound spoken in language
What are Morphemes?
smallest units in language
What is syntax?
aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences
What are semantics?
Meaning or study of meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences
What are pragmatics?
Patterns of intonation and social roles associated with a language
What is intelligence?
- A person's ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to:
- learn the environment
- learn from experience
- engage in various forms of reasoning
- overcome obstacles through mental effort
What is bilingualism?
Fluency in more than one language
What is spearman's term for a general intellectual ability that underlies all mental operations to some degree?
What was Gardner's studies of intelligence?
Theory developed by studying patients with different types of brain damage affecting some forms of intelligence but leaving others intact
What is savant syndrome?
A combination of mental retardation and unusual talent and abilities
What was Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence?
- Sternberg argues that IQ performance and real-world success are based on two different types of knowledge:
- Formal - school
- Tacit - action oriented and acquired without direct help
What are the three Parts of steinbergs triarchy?
What was the Binet-Simon test?
The first IQ test which was developed to aid schools in France
What was the problem with the Binet-Simon Test?
a 40 year old with the same IQ as a 20 year old would be considered retarded
How was the Binet-Simon test scored?
On Mental Agebased on number of items a child got right compared with the number right of various ages
Who developed Intelligence Quotient?
Who perfected Intelligence Quotient?
How do we derive Intelligence Quotient?
- originally by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100
- Now, we compare an individuals score with the scores of others of the same age.
What are the modern Intelligence tests?
- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB-V)
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)
- Wechsler Intellignece Scale for Children (WISC-IV)
- Wechsler Preschool nd Primary Scale of Intelligence (WIPSI-III)
What is reliability?
Ability of a test to yield nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test.
What is validity?
Ability of a test to measure what is is intended to measure
What is Divergent thinking?
Novel, original, and involves the synthesis of an unusual association of ideas
What is prenatal development?
Development from conception to birth
What is conception?
- Marks the beginning of prenatal period
- Usually takes place in the fallopian tubes
- Fertilization of an egg by a sperm
What is a Zygote?
- Cell that results from union of sperm and an ovum
- During first two wees after conception, rapid cell division occurs
- A zygote is about the size of a period at the end of a sentence.
What is the germinal?
A zygote from 1 to 2 weeks
What is an Embryo?
- 3 to 8 weeks
- Developing human organism
- major systems, organs, and structures of the body develop
What is the Fetus?
- From week 9 to birth
- rapid growth occurs i.e. organs, structures, and body systems
- Fetus responds to outside stimuli like sounds
What are Teratogens?
Harmful agents in the prenatal environment that can negatively impact on prenatal development
What can happen to a baby if you use heroin, cocaine, or crack during pregnancy?
- Premature Birth
- Low Birth Weight
- Breathing Difficulties
- Physical Defects
- Fetal Death
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
- Condition caused by maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy.
- Baby is born:
- mentally retarded
- with a small head
- with facial or organ deformations
- with behavioral abnormalities
- hyperactivity and short attention span
What is attachment?
The early, close relationship formed between infant and caregiver
What is contact comfort?
comfort supplied by bodily contact develops attachment
What is seperation anxiety?
Fear and distress shown by a toddler when the parent leaves
How does the stranger anxiety affect babies?
- Common in infants at about 6 months
- Increases in intensity until about 12 months
- Declines in the second year
What are the four patterns of attachment by Mary Ainsworth?
What are the benefits of a father-child relationship?
- Children generally:
- Have higher IQs
- Do better in social relationships
- cope with frustration better
- persist longer in solving problems
- less impulsive and less likely to do something violent
What are the differences between a mother child and father child relationship?
- Father child:
- Engage in more physical play
- Fathers remain further away allowing more individual exploration
- Mother child:
- More likely to cushion against overstimulation and injury
What are the stages in Piaget's Stages of cognitive Development?
- Sensorimotor 0-2 years
- Preoperational 2-7 years
- Concrete 7-11 or 12 years
- Formal Operations 11 or 12 years and beyond
What is Vygotsky's Sociocultural view?
Much of a child's cognitive development results from the internalization of info acquired socially, primarily through language
According to Vygotsky, what basic skills do children come equipped with?
- Ability to pay attention
- Certain memory capacities
What is the zone of proximal Devleopment?
range of cognitive tasks that a child cannot yet complete but can learn to do through the guidance of an older child or adult