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what are the two reasons that humans must eats?
- For calories
- For building blocks used for growth and repair
Protein, carbohydrates and fat are readily interconverted (T/F)?
True, they are can be interconverted after being broken down into intermediates.
Protein, carbs and fat can be used for both____________ and ________________.
energy production and growth
absorptaive and postabsorpative states are under teh control of what hormones?
Which organ plays a strong role in determining the transition between absorptaive and postabsorptive states?
The pancreas's main role in metabolism
transition between absoptaive and postabsoptive states.
how many hours after a meal are the absobed nutrients distributed and stored?
What two things are amino acids commonly used for?
protein synthesis and deaminated and used as fuel substrates
Amino acids leave the GI and distribute to what two areas?
Muscle and Liver
Sugars leave the GI and redistribute to what tissues?
Muscle, Liver, Adipose (Almost all tissues)
Triglycerides distribute to what tissues after absorption?
When glucose arrives in the muscle it is converted into:
When glucose arrives in the adipose tissues it is converted into:
alpha-glycerol phosphate and fatty acids and then those are combined to form triglycerides
When glucose is used for energy what is it broken down into?
water, CO2 and energy
In the liver what three things can Glucose become?
- alpha-glycerol phosphate
- fatty acids
Which amino acid breakdown product is used to make fatty acids and eventually triglycerides?
When amino acids reach the liver they can be broken down into what products?
Alph-ketoacids produced in the liver from AA can become what products?
- energy (Co2 and water)
- Fatty Acids
Tri glycerides produced in teh liver are stored where?
How many hours of fasting before nutrient stores are used?
What is the main emphasis of mobilizing stored nutrients?
maintaining glucose for the brain
What liver storage nutrients are can be used to make glucose?
Fatty acids use what intermediate to fuel tissues with energy?
what type of synthesis occurs during fasting?
What type of synthesis occurs during feasting?
What fuel does the body use during feasting?
What fuel does the body use during fasting?
Many different types
The body is concerned with make what type of molecules during feasting?
the body is concerned with what type of catabolism primarily during fasting?
What general types pf glandular cells does the pancreas contain?
exocrine and endocrine
Which general type of secretory cell is most prevalent in the pancreas?
exocrine acinar cells
What do exocrine acinar cells of the pancreas secrete?
proteases (and others) into teh small intestine.
What percent of the pancreatic mass does the islets of langerhans occupy?
The islets of langerhans are what general type of secretory cell?
A general description of the islets of langerhans is:
cluster of endocrine cells
How many types of secretory cells occupy teh pancreas?
what differntiates the four different types of secretory cells in the pancreas?
The peptides that they make
What are the four types of endocrine cells of the pancreas?
What do F cells of the pancreas secrete?
What do Delta cells of the pancreas secrete?
What do Beta cells of the pancreas secrete?
What do Alpha cells of the pancreas secrete?
Glucagon is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
Insulin is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
Pancreatic Peptide is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
Somatostatin is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
What does plasma insulin cause in muscle?
- Synthesis of glycogen and protein
- Uptake of glucose and amino acids
What does insulin cause in the Adipose tissue?
- Uptake of glucose
- Synthesis of Triglycerides
What does insulin cause in the liver?
- Uptake of Glucose
- Synthesis of Triglycerides and glycogen
- no ketone synthesis
When plasma insulin is low what is teh effect in the muscle?
- Decreased uptake of Glucose
- Catabolism of glycogen and protein
- Relseaseof AA's
- Uptake and use of Fatty acids
Decreased plasma insulin has what effect on Adipose tissue?
- Decreased glucose uptake
- net triglycerise catabolism
- Release of glycerol and fatty acids
What effect does decreased insulin plasma concentration have on the liver?
- Glucose release increases
- Glycogen ctabolism
- Ketone synthesis and release