BIOL 404-Growth 1

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BIOL 404-Growth 1
2013-04-06 13:42:09
BIOL 404 Growth

BIOL 404 -Growth 1
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  1.  what are the two reasons that humans must eats?
    • For calories
    • For building blocks used for growth and repair
  2. Protein, carbohydrates and fat are readily interconverted (T/F)?
    True, they are can be interconverted after being broken down into intermediates.
  3. Protein, carbs and fat can be used for both____________ and ________________.
    energy production and growth
  4. absorptaive and postabsorpative states are under teh control of what hormones?
    • insulin
    • glucagon
    • epinephrine/norepinephrine
    • GH
    • sex-steroids
    • glucocorticoids
    • throxine
  5. Which organ plays a strong role in determining the transition between absorptaive and postabsorptive states?
  6. The pancreas's main role in metabolism
    transition between absoptaive and postabsoptive states.
  7. how many hours after a meal are the absobed nutrients distributed and stored?
    4 hours
  8. What two things are amino acids commonly used for?
    protein synthesis and deaminated and used as fuel substrates
  9. Amino acids leave the GI and distribute to what two areas?
    Muscle and Liver
  10. Sugars leave the GI and redistribute to what tissues?
    Muscle, Liver, Adipose (Almost all tissues)
  11. Triglycerides distribute to what tissues after absorption?
  12. When glucose arrives in the muscle it is converted into:
  13. When glucose arrives in the adipose tissues it is converted into:
    alpha-glycerol phosphate and fatty acids and then those are combined to form triglycerides
  14. When glucose is used for energy what is it broken down into?
    water, CO2 and energy
  15. In the liver what three things can Glucose become?
    • alpha-glycerol phosphate
    • fatty acids
    • glycogen
  16. Which amino acid breakdown product is used to make fatty acids and eventually triglycerides?
  17. When amino acids reach the liver they can be broken down into what products?
    • alpha-ketoacids
    • NH3
  18. Alph-ketoacids produced in the liver from AA can become what products?
    • energy (Co2 and water)
    • Fatty Acids
  19. Tri glycerides produced in teh liver are stored where?
    Adipose tissue
  20. How many hours of fasting before nutrient stores are used?
  21. What is the main emphasis of mobilizing stored nutrients?
    maintaining glucose for the brain
  22. What liver storage nutrients are can be used to make glucose?
    • Glycogen
    • Glycerol
    • alpha-ketoacids
    • Lactate
    • Pyruvate
  23. Fatty acids use what intermediate to fuel tissues with energy?
  24. what type of synthesis occurs during fasting?
  25. What type of synthesis occurs during feasting?
  26. What fuel does the body use during feasting?
  27. What fuel does the body use during fasting?
    Many different types
  28. The body is concerned with make what type of molecules during feasting?
    storage molecules
  29. the body is concerned with what type of catabolism primarily during fasting?
  30. What general types pf glandular cells does the pancreas contain?
    exocrine and endocrine
  31. Which general type of secretory cell is most prevalent in the pancreas?
    exocrine acinar cells
  32. What do exocrine acinar cells of the pancreas secrete?
    proteases (and others) into teh small intestine.
  33. What percent of the pancreatic mass does the islets of langerhans occupy?
  34. The islets of langerhans are what general type of secretory cell?
  35. A general description of the islets of langerhans is:
    cluster of endocrine cells
  36. How many types of secretory cells occupy teh pancreas?
  37. what differntiates the four different types of secretory cells in the pancreas?
    The peptides that they make
  38. What are the four types of endocrine cells of the pancreas?
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Delta
    • F cells
  39. What do F cells of the pancreas secrete?
    pancreatic polypeptide
  40. What do Delta cells of the pancreas secrete?
  41. What do Beta cells of the pancreas secrete?
  42. What do Alpha cells of the pancreas secrete?
  43. Glucagon is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
    Alpha cells
  44. Insulin is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
    Beta cells
  45. Pancreatic Peptide is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
    F cells
  46. Somatostatin is secreted by what pancreatic cells?
    Delta cells
  47. What does plasma insulin cause in muscle?
    • Synthesis of glycogen and protein
    • Uptake of glucose and amino acids
  48. What does insulin cause in the Adipose tissue?
    • Uptake of glucose
    • Synthesis of Triglycerides
  49. What does insulin cause in the liver?
    • Uptake of Glucose
    • Synthesis of Triglycerides and glycogen
    • no ketone synthesis
  50. When plasma insulin is low what is teh effect in the muscle?
    • Decreased uptake of Glucose
    • Catabolism of glycogen and protein
    • Relseaseof AA's
    • Uptake and use of Fatty acids
  51. Decreased plasma insulin has what effect on Adipose tissue?
    • Decreased glucose uptake
    • net triglycerise catabolism
    • Release of glycerol and fatty acids
  52. What effect does decreased insulin plasma concentration have on the liver?
    • Glucose release increases
    • Glycogen ctabolism
    • gluconeogenisis
    • Ketone synthesis and release