Computer Memory Hierarchy

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Computer Memory Hierarchy
2013-04-01 12:21:39
Computer Memory Hierarchy

Computer Memory Hierarchy, Registers, Cache, Basic types of memory
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  1. Order of pyramid, List according to speed, price, capacity and power state.
    1.Processor Registers

    2.Processor Cache


    4.Flash Memory

    5.Hard drives

    6.Backup Tape
  2. DRAM
    - Dynamic random-access memory
  3. SRAM
    -Static random-access memory (does not need to be refreshed)
  4. Types of basic memory
  5. Basic types of memory
    • - Devices and components responsible for storing data
    • instructions and applications on permanent or temporal basis.
  6. Characteristics of flash memory
    • -Durable, fast read speeds, mechanical shock resistance.
    • Used as storage in phone.
  7. Flash memory
    -Non volatile computer storage chip…
  8. Difference between cache levels
    -size and speed
  9. Types of Cache
    -Level 1 (L1)

    -Level 2 (L2)

    -Level 3 (3)
  10. What is the cache?
    • -Small fast memory used to copy, store frequently used data
    • and instructions.
  11. Memory address registers (MAR)
    -Holds location of data and instructions in memory
  12. Memory buffer register
    • -Holds data that is being read from and written too memory.
    • Basically stores data to and from the memory.
  13. Data register
    • -Holds data temporarily that is being transmitted from
    • peripheral devices.
  14. Accumulator register
    -Stores all system results after processing.
  15. Program counter (Instruction pointer
    (IP)/Instruction address register (IDR))
    • -Holds the memory location of the next instruction in the
    • queue for execution after the current one is executed.
  16. Index registers (Base register)
    • -Hardware component on in CPU, that adds, sometimes
    • subtracts a number from an instruction to make it more effective.
  17. Memory Data Address (MDR)
    • -Located on CPU, holds data to be stored on storage of
    • recent fetched data from storage.
  18. Types of registers
    - Memory Data Address

    -Index register

    -Program counter

    -Accumulator register

    -Data register

    -Memory buffer register

    -Memory address register
  19. Executing is?
    • -Operation by CPU to display outputs on screen then storing
    • them.
  20. Decoding is?
    • -Is interpreting the given instructions, so the CPU will
    • understand what the required process is.
  21. Fetching is?
    • -Is getting instructions given by the user and from the main
    • memory for processing.
  22. Specific function of registers


  23. Function of register?
    • -Quickly accept, store and transfer data and
    • instructions/information that are being used by the CPU in that instance.

    - So they are used to process data input by the user.
  24. What are Registers?
    -Small set of data holding places on the processor.
  25. Arranged in?
    Top down