BIOL 404-Endocrine 1

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kyleannkelsey
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210692
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BIOL 404-Endocrine 1
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2013-04-06 13:42:29
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BIOL 404 Endocrine
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BIOL 404-Endocrine 1
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  1. 1.Define Autocrine:
    The cell signals itself through chemicals that it produced. It can be w/in the cytoplasm or on the surface of the cell.
  2. 2.Define Paracrine:
    chemical signals that interact with receptors on nearby cells
  3. 3.Examples of Paracrine chamical signals are:
    Cytokines and neurotransmitters
  4. 4.define exocrine:
    chemical signals are secreted into ducts
  5. 5.define endocrine:
    chemical signals are secreted into the blood
  6. 6.The nervous system compared to the endocrine system is:
    fast and electrical
  7. 7.The endocrine system produces what?
    chemical signals = hormones
  8. 8.Cells muct bear what to respond to a hormone?
    receptor
  9. 9.T/F, some neurons can act as endocrine cells?
    True
  10. 10.Define endocrinology:
    The study of hormones and their signaling pathways
  11. 11.Endocrine organs include:
    • ◦Hypothalamus
    • pineal gland
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • pancreas
    • adrenal gland
    • gonads
  12. 12.Diffuse endocrine system includes what specific types of cells:
    • ◦Myocytes of heart atria
    • ◦some epithelial cells
    • ◦cells in stomach and small intestine
  13. 13.The diffuse endocrine system is classified as what type of endocrine cells?
    Non-traditional
  14. 14.Non-traditional endocrine organs include:
    • ◦Heart
    • ◦GI tract
    • ◦Liver
    • ◦Thymus
    • ◦Kidney
  15. 15.Non-traditional endocrine cells include:
    • ◦Lymphocytes
    • ◦Adipose
    • ◦Endothelial cells
    • ◦Macrophages
    • ◦Fibroblasts
    • ◦Cells that produce growth factors
  16. 16.GI hormonal regulation of motility
    • ◦Motilin
    • ◦Substance P
    • ◦Neurotensin
    • ◦Enteroglucagon
    • ◦Vasoactive intestinal peptide
  17. 17.Motilin is involved with:
    GI motility
  18. 18.Substance P is involved in:
    GI motility
  19. 19.Neurotensin is involved in:
    GI motility
  20. 20.Enteroglucagon is involved in:
    GI motility
  21. 21.Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in:
    GI motility
  22. 22.Amines are derived from:
    Tyrosine
  23. 23.Steroids are derived from:
    Cholesterol
  24. 24.Peptides have how many amino acids?
    > 3
  25. 25.Hormone groups that are drived from tyrosine are:
    Thyroid hormones and Catecholamines
  26. 26.What two amino acids (other than Tyrosine) are hormone precursors?
    Tryptophan and Histadine
  27. 27.Examples of Catecholamines include what examples:
    • ◦epinephrine
    • ◦norepinephrine
    • ◦dopamine
  28. 28.Example of a Thyroid hormone is:
    Thyroxine
  29. 29.Thyroid hormones are usually made by:
    doubling a tyrosine and incorporating 3-4 iodine atoms
  30. 30.The incorporation fo Iodine atoms into Thyroid hormones adds what characteristic?
    Hydrophobicity
  31. 31.The differnce between epinephrine and norepinephrine is:
    ◦◦the methyl group attached to the nitrogen is removed and replaced with a hydrogen
  32. 32.Dopamine is different from norepinephrine how?
    ◦◦The OH group is changed to a Hydrogen.
  33. 33.How do Tyroxine and Triidothyronine differ?
    Triidothyronine has one less iodine (T3)
  34. 34.Hormones undergo modifications during packaging and after they have been secreted T/F?
    True
  35. 35.What is a pre-pro-hormone?
    a hormone that has not been fully synthesized, packaged or stored.
  36. 36.insuline is synthesized as what type of hormone precursor?
    pre-pro-hormone
  37. 37.Isulin is synthesized where?
    B cells of the islets of Langerhans
  38. 38.The pre portion of a pre pro hormone is a:
    signal peptide
  39. 39.The pre component of the prepro insulin is removed where?
    cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum
  40. 40.After the pre componenet of preproinsulin is removed what happens to the molecule?
    • ◦it is packaged into secretory vesicles in teh Golgi
    • ◦folded into its native structure
    • ◦locked into this conformation by 2 disulfide bonds

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