83.What are the two pathways for Estradiol production in the Gonads?
84.What is the pathway of testosterone porduction in the Gonads?
85.What are the two main areas of the adrenal gland?
Medulla (inner) and cortex (outer)
86.What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex?
◦Zona glomerulose (outer)
◦Zona fasciculata (middle)
◦Zona reticularis (inner)
87.What hormone is porduced in the Zona glomerulose of the adrenal gland?
88.What hormone is produced in the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland?
Cortisol and small amounts of androgens
89.What hormones are produced in the Zona reticularis of the adrenal gland?
Androgens and small amounts of cortisol
90.What hormones are produced in the Adrenal Medulla?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
91.What types of hormones are water soluble?
Amino Acid derivative and peptides
92.What types of hormones are water insoluble?
How are water insoluble hormones delivered and transported?
◦Protein carrier molecules
◦Hfree + Bprotein = H/BP
94.Maintenance of plasma levels of hormones controlled by three aspects, which are:
◦Rate of secretion
◦Rate of dispersal
◦Rate of removal
95.What is the most highly regulated aspect of endocrine control of hormone levels?
Rate of production: synthesis and secretion
96.Rate of delivery of a hormone is controlled by:
blood flow to the area
97.Rate of degredation and elimination of hormones is controlled by:
metabolism and excretion
98.If a half life for a hormone is long, what is the expected rate of secretion?
99.If the half life of a hormone is short what is the expectde rate of secretion?
100.What three things effect the rate of hormone secretion by an endocrine cell?
◦Ions or nutrients
101.Where are the protein recetors for water soluble hormones located on the cell?
102.Where are the protein receptors for lipid soluble hormones located on the cell?
103.Describe the mechanism of action of a lipid soluble hormone on a cell:
Diffuse through cellular membrane and attach to intracellular receptor
104.Describe the mechanism of action of a water soluble hormone on a protein receptor?
bind to cellular membrane receptor
105.What four types of cell surface hormonal receptors exist?
◦those that function as ion channels as well
◦those that activate G proteins
◦those that are bound to and activate cytoplasmic JAK kinases
◦those that function as enzymes as well
106.G proteins act as what type of effector protein when activated?
◦ion channel or enzyme
107.What is the mechanism of action of lipid soluble hormonal receptors?
function in the nucleus as transcription factors or supressors
108.What is permissiveness?
109.Give an example of permissiveness:
Epinephrin and thyroid hormone cause a synergistic interaction that causes the release of fatty acids from a cell at a rate that is much higher than the composite produced of each hormone on their own.
110.Give an example of an antagonizing hormone
Somatostatin acts on the anterior pituitary somatotrophic cells to inhibits the release of GH (growth hormone)
111.Somatostatin effects what cells?
Anterior pituitary somatotrophs
112.The action of Somatostatin on the anterior pituitary somatotrophs is classified as:
113.The action of epinephrine and thyroid hormone together of cells vs. each separetly is an example of:
permissiveness or synergistic interactions
114.Up regulation refers to what?
an increase in teh total number of target cell receptors for a hormone
115.Up regulation often happens due to what?
chronic low extracellular conc. of a hormone
116.chronic low extracellular conc. of a hormone can cause what?
117.down regulation refers to what?
A decrease in the total number of target cell receptors for a given hormone
118.What causes down regulation?
Chronic high extracellular concentrations of the hormone
119.chronic high extracellular concentrations of a hormone can cause what?
120.What are two type of receptor number modulations?