BIOL 404-Endocrine 3

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BIOL 404-Endocrine 3
2013-04-06 13:43:54
BIOL 404 Endocrine

BIOL 404-Endocrine 3
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  1. 81.What hormone is secreted by the ovaries?
  2. 82.Estrone can be converted into what hormone?
  3. 83.What are the two pathways for Estradiol production in the Gonads?
    • ◦Cholesterol
    • Androstenodione
    • estrone
    • estradoil
    • OR
    • Cholesterol
    • Androsenedione
    • testosterone
    • estradoil
  4. 84.What is the pathway of testosterone porduction in the Gonads?
    • ◦Cholesterol
    • ◦Androstenedione
    • ◦Testosterone
  5. 85.What are the two main areas of the adrenal gland?
    Medulla (inner) and cortex (outer)
  6. 86.What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex?
    • ◦Zona glomerulose (outer)
    • ◦Zona fasciculata (middle)
    • ◦Zona reticularis (inner)
  7. 87.What hormone is porduced in the Zona glomerulose of the adrenal gland?
  8. 88.What hormone is produced in the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland?
    Cortisol and small amounts of androgens
  9. 89.What hormones are produced in the Zona reticularis of the adrenal gland?
    Androgens and small amounts of cortisol
  10. 90.What hormones are produced in the Adrenal Medulla?
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
  11. 91.What types of hormones are water soluble?
    Amino Acid derivative and peptides
  12. 92.What types of hormones are water insoluble?
    • ◦Ateroids
    • ◦Thyroxine
    • ◦Triidothyronine
  13. How are water insoluble hormones delivered and transported?
    • ◦Protein carrier molecules
    • ◦Hfree + Bprotein = H/BP
  14. 94.Maintenance of plasma levels of hormones controlled by three aspects, which are:
    • ◦Rate of secretion
    • ◦Rate of dispersal
    • ◦Rate of removal
  15. 95.What is the most highly regulated aspect of endocrine control of hormone levels?
    Rate of production: synthesis and secretion
  16. 96.Rate of delivery of a hormone is controlled by:
    blood flow to the area
  17. 97.Rate of degredation and elimination of hormones is controlled by:
    metabolism and excretion
  18. 98.If a half life for a hormone is long, what is the expected rate of secretion?
  19. 99.If the half life of a hormone is short what is the expectde rate of secretion?
  20. 100.What three things effect the rate of hormone secretion by an endocrine cell?
    • ◦Ions or nutrients
    • hormones
    • neurotransmitters
  21. 101.Where are the protein recetors for water soluble hormones located on the cell?
    Cellular membrane
  22. 102.Where are the protein receptors for lipid soluble hormones located on the cell?
  23. 103.Describe the mechanism of action of a lipid soluble hormone on a cell:
    Diffuse through cellular membrane and attach to intracellular receptor
  24. 104.Describe the mechanism of action of a water soluble hormone on a protein receptor?
    bind to cellular membrane receptor
  25. 105.What four types of cell surface hormonal receptors exist?
    • ◦those that function as ion channels as well
    • ◦those that activate G proteins
    • ◦those that are bound to and activate cytoplasmic JAK kinases
    • ◦those that function as enzymes as well
  26. 106.G proteins act as what type of effector protein when activated?
  27. ◦ion channel or enzyme
  28. 107.What is the mechanism of action of lipid soluble hormonal receptors?
    function in the nucleus as transcription factors or supressors
  29. 108.What is permissiveness?
    Synergistic interactions
  30. 109.Give an example of permissiveness:
    Epinephrin and thyroid hormone cause a synergistic interaction that causes the release of fatty acids from a cell at a rate that is much higher than the composite produced of each hormone on their own.
  31. 110.Give an example of an antagonizing hormone
    Somatostatin acts on the anterior pituitary somatotrophic cells to inhibits the release of GH (growth hormone)
  32. 111.Somatostatin effects what cells?
    Anterior pituitary somatotrophs
  33. 112.The action of Somatostatin on the anterior pituitary somatotrophs is classified as:
  34. 113.The action of epinephrine and thyroid hormone together of cells vs. each separetly is an example of:
    permissiveness or synergistic interactions
  35. 114.Up regulation refers to what?
    an increase in teh total number of target cell receptors for a hormone
  36. 115.Up regulation often happens due to what?
    chronic low extracellular conc. of a hormone
  37. 116.chronic low extracellular conc. of a hormone can cause what?
    up regulation
  38. 117.down regulation refers to what?
    A decrease in the total number of target cell receptors for a given hormone
  39. 118.What causes down regulation?
    Chronic high extracellular concentrations of the hormone
  40. 119.chronic high extracellular concentrations of a hormone can cause what?
    down regulation
  41. 120.What are two type of receptor number modulations?
    up and down regulation