COU 640 Final
Card Set Information
COU 640 Final
6 active listening skills
Empathy responses (reflecting feelings)
**Active listening is not asking questions, but demonstrating that you are listening and you understand**
what is the purpose of counseling?
to faciliatate change
What is focusing?
A selective attention process on what you percieve as most important at the moment
helps client to share all facets of their story
helps develop an awaremess of the many factors related to the issue
helps bring broader perspective and ways to think about the initial concern
based on your theoretical perspective
7 places to focus listening
2.main theme or problem
3. on others (how people impact the client)
5.mutual issues or group
7. cultural/environmental/contextual issues
What is a theory?
a theory explains to us how people develop and how they sometimes get a mental disorder and strategies that can be used to promote optimum mental health
all theories are equally effective
Your hypothesis about the issue the client is presenting
sharing with the client an alternative mearning or explanation for events, behaviors, feelings, attitudes, or thoughts
to help the client draw connections between...
past and current events
patterns of behavior and reoccuring themes
their feelings and behaviors and their impact on others
to promote client self-awareness and understanding of their behaviors, attitudes, thoughts, and feelings
*****you want client to have "ah ha" moment because then they can change behavior
Steps to formulating interpretations
make sure relationship is well established, make sure they feel safe
listen to the story using your focused, active listening and third ear (minimal questions) and all 7 categories
determine what could be causing or contributing to the client's difficulties using your observations, theoretical perspective, and common sense
assess for the appropriate time
offer client a new, alternative way to think about the situation in a tentative rather than absolute manner.
Sentence Stems for Intrepretations
I have a hunch/idea that...
I have an idea about...
I was thinking that...
It seems that...
Then facilitate discussion...
How does that seem?
What are your thoughts about that?
How does that idea come across to you?
Then observe client reaction- was your timing right? did you have meaningful discussion? Interpretation accurate?
Possible reactions to Interpretations
Range of emotions
Reflect back what they gave you...feeling, meaning...sometimes clients aren't ready, and often interpretations need to be repeated many times in different ways.
Why do we challenge clients?
unaware of mixed messages and discrepancies, thier behavior, thoughts, feelings, and values are inconsistant and they
are operating on misinformation about self
are operating with mistaken ideas and irrational beliefs
misinterpret the actions of others
are blaming others rather than examine themselves
not operating according to thier own values
not working on thier goals
What is Feedback?
supplying information that confirms, changes, or widens a helpee's perspective
What is the purpose of feedback?
to indicate how the helpee's behavior is affecting
to evaluate helpee's progress toward goals
to supply information based on your observations
used in group counseling
people need to know how they are impacting other poeple
How do you give feedback?
Use "I" statements "I am uncomfortable when you talk that way about women"
Do not give people feedback on their personality traits
Phrase it in a way that the client can accept it
Be specific, concrete, and nonjudgemental
Ask permission before giving feedback
Offer tentatively, especially when about touchy subjects, find an acceptable route to get the client to think about what is being reported
Give only one or two pieces of feedback at a time
Do not forget to give feedback that emphasizes the client's strengths
include a check out to determine whether feedback was recieved and how it was accepted.
What is confrontation?
I care enough to point out discrepancies
Interventions that point out discrepancies(inconsistancies, mixed messages, or conflicts among thoughts, feelings, or behaviors) in client beliefs, behaviors, words, or nonverbal messages
Gentle, tentative, nonjudgmental invitation to look at, discuss, clarify, re-examine, or reconsider some discrepancy to facilitate the helpee's own self-exploration
Leads to clearer understanding of the problem
Confrontation is not....
Telling what to do
Acting as authority figure
Steps to formulate a confrontation
Make sure relationship is well established
Listen to the story using your focused, active, listening and third ear (minimal questions)
Identify an inconsistency, mixed message, or a conflict among the helpee's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in the story that you would like to examine
Sentence Stems for Confrontation
Identify both sides of the discrepancy
On the one hand, ____________, on the other hand________________.
You say_______________, but__________
Gently asking the client to justify the discrepancy
Help me understand how, on the one hand...
Higher level of Empathy
Reflect back underlying, out-of-awareness feelings and conflicts; exposing the deeper parts
Then invite discussion and resolution
What are your thoughts about that? How does that sound to you? What are you hearing me say?
3 possible reactions to the confrontation
Client may deny that a discrepancy may exist
Client may accept one part as true while rejecting the other
Client may fully accept the confrontation and agree to try to change his/her behavior or resolve the inconsistency
Caution for Confrontation
Powerful, may lead to feeling hurt, attacked, angry, ashamed, confused, scared, insulted or defensive
May damage self-esteem, rather than increase awareness and motivate action
Timing is very important
Not for the counselor to unload thier frustrations
What is the overall purpose of Confrontation?
To promote dialogue and exploration, not to prove them wrong
Be cautious, gentle, tentative, and nonjudgmental
Include a reflection of client feelings concerning the difficulty the client is facing
Take into account the cultural background of client- Confrontations may be hurtful and offensive from some backgrounds like, Native American, Asian
Do not include accusations, evaluations, or solutions to problems
Watch voice tone
How is counseling a experiential learning experience?
Client will start to interact w/ you the same ways they do in the world, all of thier relationship skills and difficulties become apparent
Your client can learn how they impact others by how you expreience their behavior, the issue can be made more relevant by virtue of direct experience of what it means
In group counseling it is called a "process commentary"
2 ways we use the counseling relationship to facilitate change?
**self-awareness is the key****
values/beliefs, feelings/emotions, thoughts/ideas
What is self-disclosure?
Anytime you talk about yourself
****Only disclose when it will help the client
Use only after relationship is strong enough for client's to share their deepest concerns and feelings
Experience must be parallel, must relate to what client is talking about, focus on the theme, not the topic "loss," "fear of failure"
To illustrate an example from your life of how you have successfully overcame a similar problem
Should be very short and quick, then put the "light" back on the client
How can self-disclosure beneift counseling relationship?
Promote openness and trust in relationship
Can promote immediacy
Can help client focus clearly and accurately on problems and possible resources
When is self-disclosure not effective?
Age differences and cultural differences
Steps to formulating Self-disclosure
Make sure relationship is well established
Listen to the story with focused, active listening and 3rd ear
Assess the appropriateness of your experience and timing and share it
Use "I" statements and DO NOT SAY
: I KNOW YOU FEEL...demonstrate it by reflecting feeling and meaning
Sharing needs to be relevant to client's worldview
Responses should be brief, genuine, and authenic
Return to focus to the client with a check out-
how does that seem? what are you thoughts about that? Does that sound close to what you were sharing?
What does that mean to you?
Pros for Self-disclosure
Want client to know you experienced life
Suggests counselor really understands
Builds trust and rapport
Cons for Self-disclosure
False assumptions that experiences are universal
False assumptions that client felt heard
Takes focus away from client
Client may use it against you