COU 640 Final

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  1. 6 active listening skills
    • ME
    • Restatements
    • Paraphrasing
    • Empathy responses (reflecting feelings)
    • Reflecting meaning
    • Summarizing

    **Active listening is not asking questions, but demonstrating that you are listening and you understand**
  2. what is the purpose of counseling?
    to faciliatate change
  3. What is focusing?
    • A selective attention process on what you percieve as most important at the moment
    • helps client to share all facets of their story
    • helps develop an awaremess of the many factors related to the issue
    • helps bring broader perspective and ways to think about the initial concern
    • based on your theoretical perspective
  4. 7 places to focus listening
    • 1.client
    • 2.main theme or problem
    • 3. on others (how people impact the client)
    • issues or group
    • 6. counselor
    • 7. cultural/environmental/contextual issues
  5. What is a theory?
    • a theory explains to us how people develop and how they sometimes get a mental disorder and strategies that can be used to promote optimum mental health
    • all theories are equally effective
  6. BETA
    • Humanistic
    • Psychodynamic
    • Cognitive/Behavioral
    • Family Systems
  7. Interpretation
    • Your hypothesis about the issue the client is presenting
    • sharing with the client an alternative mearning or explanation for events, behaviors, feelings, attitudes, or thoughts
    • to help the client draw connections between...
    • past and current events
    • patterns of behavior and reoccuring themes
    • their feelings and behaviors and their impact on others
    • to promote client self-awareness and understanding of their behaviors, attitudes, thoughts, and feelings
    • *****you want client to have "ah ha" moment because then they can change behavior
  8. Steps to formulating interpretations
    • make sure relationship is well established, make sure they feel safe
    • listen to the story using your focused, active listening and third ear (minimal questions) and all 7 categories
    • determine what could be causing or contributing to the client's difficulties using your observations, theoretical perspective, and common sense
    • assess for the appropriate time
    • offer client a new, alternative way to think about the situation in a tentative rather than absolute manner.
  9. Sentence Stems for Intrepretations
    • I have a hunch/idea that...
    • I have an idea about...
    • I was thinking that...
    • It seems that...
    • Then facilitate discussion...
    • How does that seem?
    • What are your thoughts about that?
    • How does that idea come across to you?

    Then observe client reaction- was your timing right? did you have meaningful discussion? Interpretation accurate?
  10. Possible reactions to Interpretations
    • Rejection
    • Thoughtfulness
    • Silence
    • Range of emotions

    Reflect back what they gave you...feeling, meaning...sometimes clients aren't ready, and often interpretations need to be repeated many times in different ways.
  11. Why do we challenge clients?
    • unaware of mixed messages and discrepancies, thier behavior, thoughts, feelings, and values are inconsistant and they
    • are operating on misinformation about self
    • are operating with mistaken ideas and irrational beliefs
    • misinterpret the actions of others
    • are blaming others rather than examine themselves
    • not operating according to thier own values
    • not working on thier goals
  12. What is Feedback?
    supplying information that confirms, changes, or widens a helpee's perspective
  13. What is the purpose of feedback?
    • to indicate how the helpee's behavior is affecting you.
    • to evaluate helpee's progress toward goals
    • to supply information based on your observations
    • used in group counseling
    • people need to know how they are impacting other poeple
  14. How do you give feedback?
    • Use "I" statements¬† "I am uncomfortable when you talk that way about women"
    • Do not give people feedback on their personality traits
    • Phrase it in a way that the client can accept it
    • Be specific, concrete, and nonjudgemental
    • Ask permission before giving feedback
    • Offer tentatively, especially when about touchy subjects, find an acceptable route to get the client to think about what is being reported
    • Give only one or two pieces of feedback at a time
    • Do not forget to give feedback that emphasizes the client's strengths
    • include a check out to determine whether feedback was recieved and how it was accepted.
  15. What is confrontation?
    • I care enough to point out discrepancies
    • Interventions that point out discrepancies(inconsistancies, mixed messages, or conflicts among thoughts, feelings, or behaviors) in client beliefs, behaviors, words, or nonverbal messages
    • Gentle, tentative, nonjudgmental invitation to look at, discuss, clarify, re-examine, or reconsider some discrepancy to facilitate the helpee's own self-exploration
    • Leads to clearer understanding of the problem
  16. Confrontation is not....
    • Yelling
    • Telling what to do
    • Acting as authority figure
  17. Steps to formulate a confrontation
    • Make sure relationship is well established
    • Listen to the story using your focused, active, listening and third ear (minimal questions)
    • Identify an inconsistency, mixed message, or a conflict among the helpee's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in the story that you would like to examine
  18. Sentence Stems for Confrontation
    • Identify both sides of the discrepancy
    • On the one hand, ____________, on the other hand________________.
    • You-But statements
    • You say_______________, but__________
    • Gently asking the client to justify the discrepancy
    • Help me understand how, on the one hand...
    • Higher level of Empathy
    • Reflect back underlying, out-of-awareness feelings and conflicts; exposing the deeper parts
    • Then invite discussion and resolution
    • What are your thoughts about that? How does that sound to you? What are you hearing me say?
  19. 3 possible reactions to the confrontation
    • Client may deny that a discrepancy may exist
    • Client may accept one part as true while rejecting the other
    • Client may fully accept the confrontation and agree to try to change his/her behavior or resolve the inconsistency
  20. Caution for Confrontation
    • Powerful, may lead to feeling hurt, attacked, angry, ashamed, confused, scared, insulted or defensive
    • May damage self-esteem, rather than increase awareness and motivate action
    • Use occansionally
    • Timing is very important
    • Not for the counselor to unload thier frustrations
  21. What is the overall purpose of Confrontation?
    • To promote dialogue and exploration, not to prove them wrong
    • Be cautious, gentle, tentative, and nonjudgmental
    • Include a reflection of client feelings concerning the difficulty the client is facing
    • Take into account the cultural background of client- Confrontations may be hurtful and offensive from some backgrounds like, Native American, Asian
    • Do not include accusations, evaluations, or solutions to problems
    • Watch voice tone
  22. How is counseling a experiential learning experience?
    • Client will start to interact w/ you the same ways they do in the world, all of thier relationship skills and difficulties become apparent
    • Your client can learn how they impact others by how you expreience their behavior, the issue can be made more relevant by virtue of direct experience of what it means
    • In group counseling it is called a "process commentary"
  23. 2 ways we use the counseling relationship to facilitate change?
    • Self-disclosure
    • Immediacy

    • **self-awareness is the key****
    • values/beliefs, feelings/emotions, thoughts/ideas
  24. What is self-disclosure?
    • Anytime you talk about yourself
    • ****Only disclose when it will help the client
    • Use only after relationship is strong enough for client's to share their deepest concerns and feelings
    • Experience must be parallel, must relate to what client is talking about, focus on the theme, not the topic "loss," "fear of failure"
    • To illustrate an example from your life of how you have successfully overcame a similar problem
    • Should be very short and quick, then put the "light" back on the client
  25. How can self-disclosure beneift counseling relationship?
    • Promote openness and trust in relationship
    • Can promote immediacy
    • Can help client focus clearly and accurately on problems and possible resources
  26. When is self-disclosure not effective?
    Age differences and cultural differences
  27. Steps to formulating Self-disclosure
    • Make sure relationship is well established
    • Listen to the story with focused, active listening and 3rd ear
    • Assess the appropriateness of your experience and timing and share it briefly
    • Use "I" statements and DO NOT SAY: I KNOW YOU FEEL...demonstrate it by reflecting feeling and meaning
    • Sharing needs to be relevant to client's worldview
    • Responses should be brief, genuine, and authenic
    • Return to focus to the client with a check out- how does that seem?¬† what are you thoughts about that?¬† Does that sound close to what you were sharing?
    • What does that mean to you?
  28. Pros for Self-disclosure
    • Want client to know you experienced life
    • Suggests counselor really understands
    • Builds trust and rapport
  29. Cons for Self-disclosure
    • False assumptions that experiences are universal
    • False assumptions that client felt heard
    • Takes focus away from client
    • Client may use it against you
Card Set:
COU 640 Final
2013-04-01 19:04:13
COU 640

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